Biology

FLORIDA’S ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES

Updated January 2016

FLORIDA FISH AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION COMMISSION

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 1

CONTENTS

PREFACE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 NUMERICAL SUMMARY OF SPECIES ……………………………………………………………………… 4 OFFICIAL LISTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

VERTEBRATES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 FISH ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 AMPHIBIANS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 REPTILES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 BIRDS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 MAMMALS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

INVERTEBRATES …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 CORALS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 CRUSTACEANS……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 INSECTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 MOLLUSKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTATIONS ………………………………………………………… 10 SPECIES ADDED, REVISED, OR REMOVED SINCE 2010 ……………………………………….. 11

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 2

PREFACE

This document consolidates the official State of Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List of wildlife. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) maintains the state list of animals designated as Federally-designated Endangered or Threatened, State-designated Threatened, or State-designated Species of Special Concern, in accordance with Rules 68A-27.003, and 68A-27.005, respectively, Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.), https://www.flrules.org/Default.asp.

On November 8, 2010 new Threatened species rules approved by the Commission went into effect (https://www.flrules.org/gateway/ChapterHome.asp?Chapter=68A-27). The list of wildlife contained herein reflect the changes to the rules. All Federally listed species that occur in Florida are now included on Florida’s list as Federally-designated Endangered or Federally- designated Threatened species. In addition, the State has a listing process to identify species that are not Federally listed but at risk of extinction. These species will be called State-designated Threatened.

All State-designated species and have recently undergone biological status reviews that were presented at the June 2011 Commission meeting and approved. Based on the status reviews and other information, staff recommended that 40 of the 61 species evaluated be included on Florida’s Threatened list in addition to the three species (gopher tortoise, Miami blue butterfly and Panama City crayfish) that were reviewed in the past decade. Staff recommended that 16 species be removed from the existing list. Three of these were classified as State- designated Threatened species at the time, and 13 are still classified as State Species of Special Concern. These listing status changes will not occur until species action plans and a comprehensive Imperiled Species Management plan are approved for all of the 60 species evaluated that do not have recent management plans completed. FWC will continue to maintain a separate Species of Special Concern category until all the species have been reviewed and those species are either designated as State-designated Threatened, or given a management plan and removed from the list.

The State lists of plants, which are designated Endangered, Threatened, and Commercially Exploited, are administered and maintained by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DOACS) via Chapter 5B-40, F.A.C. This list of plants can be obtained at http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Florida-Forest-Service/Our- Forests/Forest-Health/Florida-Statewide-Endangered-and-Threatened-Plant-Conservation- Program/Florida-s-Federally-Listed-Plant-Species.

The Federal agencies that share the authority to list species as Endangered and Threatened are the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-NMFS) and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The NOAA-NMFS is responsible for listing most marine species. The Federal list of animals and plants is administered by the USFWS, and this list is published in 50 CFR 17 (animals) and 50 CFR 23 (plants). Additional information regarding Federal listings can be located at the following websites; NOAA-NMFS – http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/esa/listed.htm and USFWS – http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/reports/ad-hoc-species- report?kingdom=V&kingdom=I&status=E&status=T&status=EmE&status=EmT&status=EXPE &status=EXPN&status=SAE&status=SAT&mapstatus=3&fcrithab=on&fstatus=on&fspecrule=o n&finvpop=on&fgroup=on&header=Listed+Animals.

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 Common and scientific names listed first are as they appear in the Florida Administrative Code, Title 68A. Common and/or scientific names following this and located within parentheses ( ) are names as used by USFWS, or other commonly used names.

Bradley J. Gruver, Ph. D., SCP Section Leader

Caly Coffey, Assistant Listed Species Coordinator Species Conservation Planning Section

Division of Habitat and Species Conservation Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

Cover Photos by FWC Staff: Key Largo Woodrat, Burrowing Owls, Okaloosa Darter, Schaus’ swallowtail butterfly, Short-tailed Snake.

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 4

NUMERICAL SUMMARY OF SPECIES Listed by the State of Florida as Federally-designated Endangered (FE), Federally-designated

Threatened (FT), Federally-designated Threatened due to Similarity of Appearance [FT(S/A)], Federal Non-Essential Experimental Population (FXN), State-designated Threatened (ST), or

State Species of Special Concern (SSC).

STATUS DESIGNATION FISH

AMPHIBIANS REPTILES BIRDS MAMMALS INVERTEBRATES TOTAL

FE 3 1 4 8 23 12 51 FT 2 1 6 6 1 15 31 FT(S/A) 0 0 1 0 0 3 4 FXN 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 ST 3 0 7 5 2 0 17 SSC 6 4 6 16 6 4 42

TOTAL 14 6 24 36 32 34 146

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 5

FLORIDA’S ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES OFFICIAL LIST

VERTEBRATES FISH

Common Name Scientific Name Status Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus FE Blackmouth shiner Notropis melanostomus ST Bluenose shiner Pteronotropis welaka SSC Crystal darter Crystallaria asprella ST

Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus [=oxyrhynchus] desotoi FT

Harlequin darter Etheostoma histrio SSC Key silverside Menidia conchorum ST Lake Eustis pupfish Cyprinodon hubbsi SSC Okaloosa darter Etheostoma okalossae FT Rivulus Rivulus marmoratus SSC Saltmarsh topminnow Fundulus jenkinsi SSC Shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum FE Smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinate FE Southern tessellated darter Etheostoma olmstedi maculaticeps SSC

AMPHIBIANS

Common Name Scientific Name Status Florida bog frog Lithobates okaloosae SSC Frosted flatwoods salamander Ambystoma cingulatum FT Georgia blind salamander Haideotriton wallacei SSC Gopher frog Lithobates capito SSC Pine barrens treefrog Hyla andersonii SSC Reticulated flatwoods salamander Ambystoma bishopi FE

REPTILES

Common Name Scientific Name Status Alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii SSC American alligator Alligator mississippiensis FT(S/A) American crocodile Crocodylus acutus FT Atlantic salt marsh snake Nerodia clarkii taeniata FT Barbour’s map turtle Graptemys barbouri SSC Bluetail mole skink Eumeces egregius lividus FT

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 6

Common Name Scientific Name Status Eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais couperi FT Florida brownsnake1 Storeria victa ST Florida Keys mole skink Eumeces egregius egregius SSC Florida pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus SSC Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus ST Green sea turtle Chelonia mydas FE Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata FE Kemp’s ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys kempii FE Key ringneck snake Diadophis punctatus acricus ST Leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea FE Loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta FT Peninsula ribbon snake1 Thamnophis sauritus sackenii ST Red rat snake1 Elaphe guttata SSC Rim rock crowned snake Tantilla oolitica ST Sand skink Neoseps reynoldsi FT Short-tailed snake Stilosoma extenuatum ST Striped mud turtle1 Kinosternon baurii ST Suwannee cooter Pseudemys suwanniensis SSC

BIRDS

Common Name Scientific Name Status American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus SSC Audubon’s crested caracara Polyborus plancus audubonii FT Bachman’s wood warbler Vermivora bachmanii FE Black skimmer Rynchops niger SSC Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis SSC Burrowing owl Athene cunicularia SSC Cape Sable seaside sparrow Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis FE Eskimo curlew Numenius borealis FE Everglade snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus FE Florida grasshopper sparrow Ammodramus savannarum floridanus FE Florida sandhill crane Grus canadensis pratensis ST Florida scrub-jay Aphelocoma coerulescens FT Ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis FE Kirtland’s wood warbler (Kirtland’s warbler)

Dendroica kirtlandii (Setophaga kirtlandii) FE

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 7

Common Name Scientific Name Status Least tern Sterna antillarum ST Limpkin Aramus guarauna SSC Little blue heron Egretta caerulea SSC Marian’s marsh wren Cistothorus palustris marianae SSC Osprey2 Pandion haliaetus SSC Piping plover Charadrius melodus FT Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis FE Reddish egret Egretta rufescens SSC Roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja SSC Roseate tern Sterna dougallii dougallii FT Rufa red knot Calidris canutus rufa FT Scott’s seaside sparrow Ammodramus maritimus peninsulae SSC Snowy egret Egretta thula SSC

Snowy plover Charadrius nivosus (Charadrius alexandrinus) ST

Southeastern American kestrel Falco sparverius paulus ST Tricolored heron Egretta tricolor SSC Wakulla seaside sparrow Ammodramus maritimus juncicola SSC White-crowned pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala ST Whooping crane Grus americana FXN White ibis Eudocimus albus SSC Worthington’s marsh wren Cistothorus palustris griseus SSC Wood stork Mycteria americana FT

MAMMALS

Common Name Scientific Name Status Anastasia Island beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus phasma FE Big Cypress fox squirrel Sciurus niger avicennia ST Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis FE Choctawhatchee beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus allophrys FE Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus SSC Everglades mink Neovison vison evergladensis ST Finback whale Balaenoptera physalus FE Florida bonneted (mastiff) bat Eumops [=glaucinus] floridanus FE Florida mouse Podomys floridanus SSC

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 8

Common Name Scientific Name Status Florida panther Puma [=Felis] concolor coryi FE Florida salt marsh vole Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli FE Gray bat Myotis grisescens FE Gray wolf Canis lupus FE Homosassa shrew Sorex longirostris eonis SSC Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae FE Indiana bat Myotis sodalis FE Key deer Odocoileus virginianus clavium FE Key Largo cotton mouse Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola FE Key Largo woodrat Neotoma floridana smalli FE Lower Keys rabbit Sylvilagus palustris hefneri FE North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis FE Perdido Key beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis FE Red wolf Canis rufus FE Rice rat Oryzomys palustris natator FE1 Sanibel Island rice rat Oryzomys palustris sanibeli SSC Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis FE Sherman’s fox squirrel Sciurus niger shermani SSC Sherman’s short-tailed shrew Blarina [=carolinensis] shermani SSC Southeastern beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris FT Sperm whale Physeter catodon [=macrocephalus] FE St. Andrew beach mouse Peromyscus polionotus peninsularis FE West Indian manatee (Florida manatee)

Trichechus manatus (Trichechus manatus latirostris) FE

INVERTEBRATES CORALS

Common Name Scientific Name Status Boulder star coral Orbicella franksi FT Elkhorn coral Acropora palmata FT Lobed star coral Orbicella annularis FT Mountainous star coral Orbicella faveolata FT Pillar coral Dendrogyra cylindricus ST Rough cactus coral Mycetophyllia ferox FT Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis FT

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 9

CRUSTACEANS

Common Name Scientific Name Status Black Creek crayfish (Spotted royal crayfish) Procambarus pictus SSC

Panama City crayfish Procambarus econfinae SSC Santa Fe Cave crayfish Procambarus erythrops SSC Squirrel Chimney Cave shrimp Palaemonetes cummingi FT

INSECTS

Common Name Scientific Name Status American burying beetle Nicrophorus americanus FE Bartram’s scrub-hairstreak Strymon acisbartrami FE Cassius blue butterfly Leptotes cassius theonus FT(S/A) Ceraunus blue butterfly Hemiargus ceraunus antibubastus FT(S/A) Miami blue butterfly Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri FE Nickerbean blue butterfly Cyclargus ammon FT(S/A) Schaus’ swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus FE

MOLLUSKS

Common Name Scientific Name Status Chipola slabshell (mussel) Elliptio chiplolaensis FT Choctaw bean Villosa choctawensis FE Fat threeridge (mussel) Amblema neislerii FE Florida treesnail Liguus fasciatus SSC Fuzzy pigtoe Pleurobema strodeanum FT Gulf moccasinshell (mussel) Medionidus penicillatus FE Narrow pigtoe Fusconai escambia FT Ochlockonee moccasinshell (mussel) Medionidus simpsonianus FE

Oval pigtoe (mussel) Pleurobema pyriforme FE Purple bankclimber (mussel) Elliptoideus sloatianus FT Round ebonyshell Fusconaia rotulata FE Shinyrayed pocketbook (mussel) Lampsilis subangulata FE

Southern kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi FE Southern sandshell Hamiota australis FT

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 10

Common Name Scientific Name Status Stock Island tree snail Orthalicus reses [not incl. nesodryas] FT Tapered pigtoe Fusconaia burki FT

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 10

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND NOTATIONS List Abbreviations FWC = Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission FE = Federally-designated Endangered FT = Federally-designated Threatened FXN = Federally-designated Threatened Nonessential Experimental Population FT(S/A) = Federally-designated Threatened species due to similarity of appearance ST = State-designated Threatened SSC = State Species of Special Concern

List Notations 1 Lower keys population only. 2 Monroe County population only.

Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List 11

SPECIES ADDED, REVISED, OR REMOVED SINCE 2010 The Florida black bear was removed from Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List on August 23, 2012 after approval by the Commission at the June 2012 Commission meeting. A new Florida Black Bear Management Plan was also approved at this meeting. The Miami blue butterfly was emergency listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on August 10, 2011. On April 6, 2012, the Miami blue was officially listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Effective September 9, 2012 the FWC listed the Miami blue butterfly as Federally-designated Endangered on Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List. The Cassius blue butterfly, ceraunus blue butterfly, and nickerbean blue butterfly were emergency listed as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance to the Miami blue by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on August 10, 2011. On April 6, 2012, these three species were officially listed as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance to the Miami blue by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. These three species were listed on Florida’s Endangered and Threatened Species List as Federally-designated Threatened by Similarity of Appearance to the Miami blue butterfly effective September 9, 2012, and as such only the following prohibitions apply to these three species:

a. Incidental take, that is, take that results from, but is not a purpose of, carrying out an otherwise lawful activity will not apply to cassius blue butterfly, ceraunus blue butterfly, and nickerbean blue butterfly.

b. Collection of the cassius blue butterfly, ceraunus blue butterfly, and nickerbean blue butterfly is prohibited in coastal counties south of Interstate 4 and extending to the boundaries of the State of Florida at the endpoints of Interstate 4 at Tampa and Daytona Beach. Specifically, such activities are prohibited in the following counties: Brevard, Broward, Charlotte, Collier, De Soto, Hillsborough, Indian River, Lee, Manatee, Pinellas, Sarasota, St. Lucie, Martin, Miami-Dade, Monroe, Palm Beach, and Volusia

The Okaloosa darter was reclassified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on effective May 2, 2011 from Endangered to Threatened. A special rule under Section 4d of the Endangered Species Act was also adopted that allows Eglin Air Force Base to continue activities with a reduced regulatory burden and will provide a net benefit to the Okaloosa darter. Several species of mussels were Federally listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on October 10, 2012. These species include the: round ebonyshell, southern kidneyshell, Choctaw bean (all Endangered), tapered pigtoe, narrow pigtoe, southern sandshell, and fuzzy pigtoe (all Threatened). The Florida bonneted bat was Federally listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on October 2, 2013 after receiving a petition for emergency listing. The wood stork was reclassified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on June 30, 2014, from Endangered to Threatened.

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The rufa red knot was Federally listed as Threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on January 12, 2015.

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