1. Ribosomal RNA (Points : 4)
covalently binds amino acids.
contains an anticodon.
is produced in the nucleolus of the nucleus.
assists in DNA replication.
has no known function in the cell.

2. In a DNA molecule, the bases are covalently bonded to each other. (Points : 4)

3. The completion of the Human Genome Project allowed us to sequence all of the human genome and to know the function of all of the genes. (Points : 4)

4. Which of the following is not a part of the process of translation? (Points : 4)
initiator tRNA binding to the ribosome
removal of introns from mRNA
mRNA binding to the ribosome
joining large and small ribosomal subunits
chain termination at a stop codon

5. Which of the following is matched correctly? (Points : 4)
DNA fingerprinting–requires restriction enzymes.
polymerase chain reaction–makes use of the noncoding sections of DNA.
DNA ligase–makes many copies of a segment of DNA.
point mutation–addition of a nucleotide base to DNA.
recombinant DNA–contains DNA from two or more different sources.

6. A tiny spot of blood was found on a glove at a crime scene. What method of DNA technology would you use to make more copies of the DNA sample left at the scene? (Points : 4)
DNA fingerprinting
recombinant DNA

7. The removal of a nucleotide from a gene in the DNA leads to a _______________. (Points : 4)
point mutation
frameshift mutation
none of the above

8. Which is a true statement? (Points : 4)
For mRNA synthesis to occur, DNA polymerase must bind to a promoter region on the DNA.
RNA polymerase uses mRNA to synthesize more copies of mRNA.
Introns are converted into triplets during transcription.
Transcription is the process of protein synthesis.
Translation occurs in the cytoplasm.

9. Which of the following is not a suspected cause of cancer? (Points : 4)
inherited genes

10. What purpose does a cell-signaling pathway serve in a multicellular organism? (Points : 4)
activation of specific genes in the receiving cells
stimulation of the cell cycle in receiving cells
coordination of environmental responses
coordination of metabolic activity in receiving cells
Any of these could be a purpose for a cell-signaling pathway.

11. Transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins that assist RNA polymerase bind to the promoter region of DNA. (Points : 4)

12. To metastasize, cancer cells must enter a blood vessel or a lymphatic vessel. (Points : 4)

13. Telomerase (Points : 4)
is an enzyme that degrades chromosomes.
is found in all adult cells.
is highly active in cancer cells.
inhibits DNA replication.
is a particular DNA sequence on the ends of chromosomes.

14. A regulatory gene codes for a protein that activates the genes in an operon. (Points : 4)

15. After it is synthesized, mRNA (Points : 4)
may linger in the nucleus before moving into the cytoplasm.
has its exons removed and its introns spliced.
passes into a nuclear pore where it is “capped.”
binds to the nuclear protein IF-2.
is immediately shuttled to the ribosomes and translated.

16. Cloning is a natural process for some organisms. (Points : 4)

17. Which is the following is not true? (Points : 4)
Transcription factors can be used repeatedly at many different promoter regions.
Transcription activators do not bind to promoter regions.
An enhancer region of DNA is adjacent to the promoter.
DNA can form loops before certain genes can be transcribed.
One regulatory protein can have a decisive effect on the final gene products.

18. The only two methods by which fetal cells can be obtained for testing are amniocentesis and chorionic villi sampling. (Points : 4)

19. An exchange of chromosomal segments between two nonhomologous chromosomes is a/an (Points : 4)

20. In a duplication, (Points : 4)
a person has more than two alleles for a certain trait.
crossing-over between sister chromatids has occurred twice
a particular segment is missing on one chromosome.
a chromosomal segment is turned 180o.
chromosomal segments are exchanged between two nonhomologous chromosomes.

21. The insertion of genetic material into human cells for treatment of a disorder is called (Points : 4)
gene therapy.

22. Which of the following is not true regarding a karyotype? (Points : 4)
It arranges chromosomes into pairs based on size, shape, and banding pattern.
The procedure can be done on fetal cells.
It can be done using any cell in the body.
It is a means of diagnosing a chromosomal abnormality.
It can be done using any nucleated cell in the body.

23. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder. If a woman who does not have PKU gives birth to a child who has PKU, which of the following men, based on this information alone, could not be the father of the child? (Points : 4)
a man who has PKU.
a man who does not have PKU, none of his siblings or cousins have it, and there was no PKU in his family for six generations before him.
a man who does not have PKU but whose mother had PKU.
a man who does not have PKU but whose maternal grandmother and paternal grandfather had PKU.
Any of these men could be the father of the child.

24. These disorders are present only in males and are passed from father to all sons, but, not to daughters. (Points : 4)
X-linked disorders
X-linked recessive disorders
X-linked dominant disorders
Y-linked disorders
autosomal dominant disorders

25. In an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, if both parents have the disorder, what is the chance that their sons will have the disorder? (Points : 4)
Impossible to determine from the information alone.

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