Answer all questions


1.List and describe the seven general categories of toxic substances described in this chapter

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2. Describe and contrast the processes of bioaccumulation and biomagnification.

3.Explain the dose-response curve. Why do endocrine- disrupting chemicals such as BPA pose challenges for toxicology?

4.What factors may affect an individual’s response to a toxic substance?

5.Name three major types of water pollutants, and provide an example of each. Explain which classes of pollutants you think are most important in your local area.

6.Define groundwater, and list some anthropogenic (human) sources of groundwater pollution. Why do many scientists consider groundwater pollution a greater problem than surface water pollution?

7.Name three industrial fishing practices, and explain how they create bycatch and harm marine life

Read What is Phylogeny? ( and Tree of Life Structure ( to learn about the Tree of Life.

Search the Tree of Life web-site to locate information about the evolution of your species. You may also use additional sources.

Then answer the following questions: your creature is a “Sheep”

1. Which domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family and genus does your species belong to? (this may be easier to find through a web-search than the ToL web-site).

2. Which other species is your creature closely related to? Any surprises? Explain

3. What are some of the ancestors of your species? Any surprises? Explain

4. How closely related to humans is your species? What was the last common ancestor or what was the “lowest” organization level your species share with humans? (genus, family, phylum etc)

5. What are the different types of data/methods scientists use to create phylogenetic trees and determine evolutionary relationships between species?

Part II: Natural Selection

In your own words explain how the process of natural selection may lead to evolution using a specific example. It is great if you use a trait in your creature. (Sheep) Include the following terms in your explanation: beneficial (or adaptive) trait, differential reproduction, selection pressure, evolution, population. word count 280

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