Biology

Running head: AGARICUS 1

AGARICUS 2

Agaricus

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Agaricus

I. Introduction

A. Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms comprising of comestible and poisonous species with about 300 specimens globally. Its scientific name is Agaricus Bisporus.

B. Agaricus Bisporus is identified as eaten mushroom by at least 83% of the people worldwide since was the only commonly known type of mushroom. When it has mature, it is identified as christened Portobello.Individuals in over 70 nations farm as both cash and stable food. Used mainly by scientists for medicinal purposes (Nihgov, 2015).

C. The species is believed to have originated from Brazil and spread to other nations. Currently, is with U.S where I live and is grown in greenhouses.

D. Agaricus is a biome comprising of mushroom grass on mud fertile blocks. The surface species biomes grow naturally or are created by the player in protective areas. Underground 0 depths below the sea Agaricus biome grows naturally.

II.           The Body: this section should contain

A. Background: The genus Agaricus has the most economical importance globally, cultivated for both medicinal and foods use. The distinguishing factor from other species is that unlike other species of Agaricus its abides two spores each. Its cap is 3-16 cm in convex shape almost flat in its edges. It is smooth with pressed-down fibers that are either white or others blown. The step is between 2-8 cm long and 1-3 centimeters thick(Nakamura-Tsuruta et al. 2006).

B. Life Cycle:The mushrooms are fungi with abundant species mounting naturally most of North America. TheAgaricus life cycles start when the spores are being released from the gills. Thousands of spores are released into the air, water or the animals. The spores are then dispensed depending without specific target point. If the conditions for its germinations, the spore germinate sending out tiny threads known as the hyphae. For a hypha to growth and mature to a mushroom, it has to find other hyphae that are compatible. The two hyphae meet and form a thread known as mycelium. The mycelium forms a hyphal knot that develops into a pinhead and finally develops into a mature Agaricus (Mushroomexpertcom, 2015).

C. Structure and Function: Drosophila melanogaster signifies a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate the Agaricus behavior (Ismaya et al. 2011).A mature Agaricus at the top is the cap that is spherical with almost flat edges. Its surface is smooth and hairy with fragments remnants with a universal veil that is present on its gills. The gills are exalted on the lower side of the cap containing many thin layers stacked side by side. The tubes are sponge-like layers, wrinkled or veined under the cap where the spores are produced. The veils guard the gills when they are young. As the cap tends to grow up, the veil ruptures and leaves the skirt like a ring on the stem. In someAgaricus, the veil is identified as a universal veil that covers the whole mushrooms as it emerge from the ground and as it grows it leaves the Volva cup on the ground. A mature Agaricus can have a frilly, cupped, shaggy, frilly or shelf-like shape (Nakamura-Tsuruta et al. 2006).

D. Evolution: Agaricus species inclines to be the most well – adapted and resourceful. The Agaricus is a very old species contributing much to the current world. Old is non-branching in the evolutionarywhere the structure and functions same are lost where the others are acquired. Agaricus is believed to evolve in an ancient sea about one billion years ago. Scientist has it that it is still the most aquatic adapted bacterium. It existed into two polar flagella that exist in water.it is believed to have evolved about 534 years ago before the beginning of terrestrial life since the exotic structure were easy to yield in early evolution(Nihgov, 2015).

The second polar is peritrichous flagella that biologist believed was formed in the ancient time by scattered materials under the see. Moving out of the ancient sea into the sea land was the fact that it would be the reason it was well-adapted soil bacterium. It gave chance for one of the bacteria to break open and release the enzymes that noticeable grows in diverse regions. Finally, incongruence between mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny and phylogeny of the linear mitochondrial plasmids were identified in Agaricus species. They indicate separate evolution history for the plasmids and host mitochondrial (Disabled-worldcom, 2015).

E. Additional interests:It is of interest to note that Agaricus Bisporus are fungi and are not plants or animals but belong to their peculiar kingdoms. However, they are unable to produce their food during the process of photosynthesis and instead acquire sustenancefrom living or lifeless plants and animals. Like other fungus, the only visible part of Agaricus Bisporus is the fruit body that arises from unseen networks known as hyphae (Ismaya et al. 2011).

III. Conclusion

· Agaricus Bisporus were originated under the sea 535 million years ago.

· Agaricus Bisporus is the eaten mushroom globally.

· Agaricus Bisporus is neither a plant nor an animal.

· Its structure is composed of three main parts: gill, cap, and the stem.

· Agaricus Bisporus life cycle starts when spores are released by gills and ends when mycelium forms a hyphal knot.

References

Disabled-worldcom. (2015). Disabled World. Retrieved 19 September 2015, from http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/mushrooms.shtml

Ismaya, W. T., Rozeboom, H. J., Weijn, A., Mes, J. J., Fusetti, F., Wichers, H. J., & Dijkstra, B. W. (2011). Crystal structure of Agaricus bisporus mushroom tyrosinase: identity of the tetramer subunits and interaction with tropolone. Biochemistry50(24), 5477-5486.

Nakamura-Tsuruta, S., Kominami, J., Kuno, A., & Hirabayashi, J. (2006). Evidence that Agaricus bisporus agglutinin (ABA) has dual sugar-binding specificity. Biochemical and biophysical research communications347(1), 215-220.

Nihgov. (2015). PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved 19 September 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2249742/

Mushroomexpertcom. (2015). Mushroomexpertcom. Retrieved 19 September 2015, from http://www.mushroomexpert.com/agaricus.html

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