BIOLOGY

1. All of the following are exmaples of environmental nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), except

World Wildlife Fund

Natural Resources Defense Council

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

The Nature Conservancy

Greenpeace

2. As a form of waste reduction, reuse does all of the following, EXCEPT

Decreases the use of matter resources

Decreases the use of energy resources

Cuts pollution and waste

Creates local jobs

Costs money

3. Which of the following is NOT a type of ewaste?

Discraded TV sets

Discarded computer printer paper

Discarded cell phones

Discraded electronic toys

Discarded computer monitors

4. At what level of exposure to a particular toxic chemical will the chemical cause harm?

Toxicity

Biomagnifications

Persistence

Response

Dose

5. Markets do well in the production and distribution of private goods, but are not so good at

Accumulating resources

Distribution of resources

Public services

Protecting sources of information

Developing strategies

6. Typical rain in the eastern US is at least _____ times more acidic than what normal precipitation should be

2

5

10

20

50

7. Governments intervene in markets to do all of the following, EXCEPT

Prevent degradation of open-access resources

Provide public services

Provide security ad protecton

Manage public resources

Direct production of goods and services

8. Developed contries, in the year 2000, pledged to devote 0.7% of their national income toward reducing hunger and poverty, and moving toward environmental sustainability. What is the average actual amount donated by these countries?

2.0%

1.5%

0.75%

0.50%

0.25%

9. The trickle-down effect describes how

Hhigh quality energy being converted to low quality heat energy

Toxic wastes filter down in landfills.

Use of microloans to alleviate poverty

Economic growth increases the number of jobs and helps the poor help themselves.

Movement of toxic pesticides percolate through a food web.

10. Which of the following would NOT traditionally support an eco-economy?

Shift taxes from wages and profits to pollution and waste.

Improve energy efficiency.

Shift from a carbon-based economy to a renewable fuel-based economy.

Repair ecological damage

Decrease subsidies for alternative fuel vehicles.

11. The process by which individuals and groups tries to influence or control the policies and actions of governments is known as

Lobbying

policy making

politics

all of these answers

none of these answers

12. Countries whose environment has been severely degraded may be characterized by any of the following, EXCEPT

Deterioration of vital infrastructure

Increased immigration

Allegiance to warlords

Breakdown of law and order

Violent internal conflict or civil war

13. Ecological and environmental economists consider which of the following to be a basic cause of environmental degradation, pollution, poor health, and premature death?

Taxes on wages, income, wealth

Using tradable permits or rights to pollute

Government subsidies

Laws and regulations to prevent pollution

Poverty

14. Human inputs of outdoor air pollutants occur mostly

In rural areas

In the mountains

Along the oceans

In urban areas

In the deserts

15. New and more innovative business replacing older ones that can no longer thrive under changing economic conditions is known as

Free market system

Economic competition

Economic succession

Neoclassical economics

Environmental economics

16. ________relates to the amount of a potentially toxic substance as it passes through food chains and webs.

Toxicity

Biomagnification

Persistence

Response

Dose

17. Which of the following countries did not adopt Agenda 21, the global agenda for sustainable development in the 21st century?

Russia

England

United States

Australia

Canada

18. The atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth’s air is the

Thermosphere

Mesosphere

Stratosphere

Troposphere

Tropopause

19. Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the air or water is an example of

Tradable pollution rights

Charging user fees

Regulation

Green taxes

Subsidies for beneficial actions

20. Which branch of the U.S. government is responsible for instructing federal agencies on their tasks?

Federal

Military

Executive

Judicial

none of these answers

21. Environmentalists say that the best way to handle soft drink and beer containers is to

Use landfills

Use paper bottles

Use stainless steel cans

Use reusable glass bottles and PET containers and recycle

Bury them

22. Which of the following is the LEAST desirable from an environmental standpoint?

Repair

Reduce

Reuse

Compost

Recycle

23. Since 1980, the gap between the rich and the poor has

Disappeared

Increased

stayed the same

Decreased

Stayed the same and then decreased

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