All need apa 6th edition format with at least one reference and in text citations.

1. Explain why the female reproductive system evolved a menstrual cycle, but the male system does not adhere to any kind of true cycle. 200 words

2. Compare the trends seen in the characteristics of r-selected and K-selected species, also noting examples and exceptions learned in your study of population ecology. 500 words

3. Relate the six main sexually transmitted diseases, their causes, and their treatments. 500 words

4. Throughout the story of the evolution of parasites, we frequently see a shift from parasites that seriously harmed their hosts, to those who evolve benign, nearly commensal relationships with their hosts. Evaluate why parasites are more likely to evolve “live and let live” relationships while predators do not. 75 words

5. Compare mutualism and commensalism and give an example of each. 75 words

6. Why is it advantageous for the rabies virus to make its victim “go mad?” 200 words

7. Describe the effects of energy loss going through the trophic levels. 200 words

8. Explain three global consequences of global warming. 500 words

Exercise 2: The Globin Gene

1. Complete the DNA molecule by writing a complementary strand.

Coding Strand: CGT CTC TTC GGA CAC Complementary Strand:
2. Write the mRNA sequence that will be created in the process of transcription. The DNA coding strand has the information for the gene, so the strand must be transcribed. The relationships are slightly different for RNA, because RNA does not have T; therefore, U should be substituted for T. To transcribe DNA to RNA, the pairing relationship is A – U, T – A, C – G, and G – C, respectively.

Coding Strand: CGT CTC TTC GGA CAC

mRNA Strand:

3. Translate the mRNA into amino acids. Use Table 1 as a reference. Remember, when a “stop”
codon is recognized, the protein creation is terminated.

mRNA Strand:
Amino Acids Formed:


A. How many nucleotides would it take to construct the mRNA coding strand of the β-subunit of the hemoglobin A molecule?
B. How many nucleotides would it take to model the entire β-subunit of the hemoglobin A molecule?
C. Is the β-subunit of the hemoglobin A molecule a complete DNA molecule (chromosome) or part of one? Explain.
D. What would happen if one of the DNA nucleotides was deleted? What if the first T was substituted for an A? Would a substitution always result in a change? Explain why or why not.
E. Using your newly formed model of DNA from Exercise 1, write the coding strand below. Use the coding strand to determine the mRNA strand and the amino acids formed. Do this separately for Row 1 and Row 2 of your DNA model.

Data Table: Newly Formed Model of DNA from Exercise 1
Coding Strand
mRNA Strand
Amino Acids Formed
F. Did the new DNA model form any two of the same amino acids?
G. Optional: Compare the amino acids that were formed in this experiment with those of classmates who also performed this experiment. Were there many similarities?

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