70. According to Rosenzweig, the pervasive belief that organizational innovativeness could be

replicated through a simple formulae can be attributed to observational bias known as


a. discovery

b. genesis

c. the halo effect

d. adaptation17

Final Examination

HCA 320 Essentials of Managed Care

71. According to Plesk and Wilson, the four key conditions or parameters required for space for

novel ideas, creative solutions, and the emergence of new relationships are _____________.

a. discretion, boundaries, permission, and requirements

b. direction, brainstorming, permission, and resources

c. discretion, brainstorming, permission, and resources

d. direction, boundaries, permission, and resources

72. Three common myths or misconceptions about innovation are that (1) innovation is good;

(2) there is a formula, and (3) innovation is ____________.

a. infinite

b. finite

c. linear

d. circular

73. _____________ are workforce or human resource practices that have been shown to improve

an organization’s capacity to effectively attract, select, hire, develop, and retain high-

performing employees.

a. High-Performance Work Practices

b. Just Culture/Just Safety Culture

c. Magnet Status

d. Pay-For-Performance

74. Burgeoning medical knowledge and the complexity of health care delivery have resulted in

increasing _____________ in the health care workforce.

a. organization

b. professionalism

c. generalization

d. specialization

75. Six Sigma is a quality improvement strategy invented by _____________ in the mid 1980s.

a. IBM

b. Sprint

c. AT&T

d. Motorola

76. _____________ identification has effectively limited organizational identification

(i.e., individuals’ sense of alignment with the organization).

a. Professional

b. Personal

c. Self

d. Group18

Final Examination

HCA 320 Essentials of Managed Care

77. ____________ comprises the fundamental values, assumptions, and beliefs held in common

by members of an organization.

a. Strategy

b. Culture

c. Structure

d. Branding

78. ____________ is the process of providing a lens through which to interpret a situation.

a. Structuring

b. Defining

c. Framing

d. Aligning

79. _____________ leadership is defined as influencing followers by “broadening and elevating

followers’ goals and providing them with confidence to perform beyond the expectations

specified in the implicit or explicit exchange agreement.”

a. Transactional

b. Transformational

c. Traditional

d. Innovative

80. _____________ can be defined as the creation, implementation, and overall direction for a


a. Strategic management

b. Competitive advantage

c. Environmental control

d. None of the above.

81. The _____________ Framework has often been employed to understand the competitive forces

in industries.

a. Forward Financial

b. Five Fingers

c. Five Forces

d. Forward Forces

82. ____________ costs are the costs incurred when a customer changes from one supplier or

product to another.

a. Detrimental

b. Rotating

c. Oscillating

d. Switching19

Final Examination

HCA 320 Essentials of Managed Care

83. ___________ power is when customers seek to drive down price and improve quality.

a. Buyer

b. Intentional

c. Supplier

d. Group

84. The analytical tool used for evaluating organizational capabilities, SWOT, stands for


a. strengths, weakness, organization, and teamwork

b. strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats

c. structure, weakness, opportunities and teamwork

d. structure, weakness, organization and threats

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