49. According to the well-known management theorist, NitinNohria, effective leaders know

how and when to use each of ____________ means of persuasion.

a. Plato’s

b. Aristotle’s

c. Plutarch’s

d. Socrates’s

50. People respond to ideas that are easy to visualize because they can be recalled from memory

more readily. This is an example of the ____________ phenomenon.

a. association

b. photographic

c. availability

d. optical

51. After simplicity, the second most important quality of one’s message is _____________.

a. complexity

c. vividness

b. brevity

d. uniqueness

52. One reason that broad involvement of many different stakeholders is crucial to the success of

a communicator is that stakeholders can ______________.

a. determine their worth

b. demand better benefits

c. reluctantly comply

d. offer their expertise14

Final Examination

HCA 320 Essentials of Managed Care

53. The issue of broad representation generally becomes more important as an organizational

initiative moves into the ___________ phase.

a. origination

b. implementation

c. scouting

d. planning

54. A weakness of ____________ is that it is not appropriate for exploring a particular idea or

proposal in depth.

a. structured interviews

b. focus groups

c. open-ended interviews

d. interview design

55. _____________ explains how information spreads.

a. Hierarchy

b. Collapsing

c. Contagion

d. Staggering

56. Real-time team meetings are venues where _____________ communication takes place.

a. enhanced

b. all-channel

c. structured

d. circle

57. Which of the following is not a method used in managing organizational communication?

a. open-ended interviews

b. structured interviews

c. one-minute essays

d. All the above.

58. This rests on a fundamental principle that practitioners and institutions that produce the best

outcomes should receive more money than those who underperform.

a. pay-for-performance

b. pay-for-outcome

c. pay-for-efficiency

d. pay-for-quality15

Final Examination

HCA 320 Essentials of Managed Care

59. Emotional ____________ occurs when emotions are transmitted from one party to another.

a. reaching

b. passage

c. displacement

d. contagion

60. ____________ is the tendency for others to exchange equal levels of goods and services.

a. Bartering

b. Sharing

c. Reciprocity

d. Fairness

61. _____________ involves acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, instruction or


a. Learning

b. Research

c. Studying

d. None of the above.

62. The three strategies that are the most common when individuals engage another party and

seek resolution are ____________.

a. compromising, competing, and collaborating

b. compromising, competing and consistency

c. creating, combining and consistency

d. creating, cost-effectiveness and collaborating

63. _____________ is a negotiation tactic which involves trading off on issues that are of different

value to each party.

a. Pitching

b. Compromising

c. Aggregating

d. Logrolling

64. Objective arguments are more effective than subjective arguments because they are rooted

in _____________, not perception, and are therefore more difficult to refute.

a. rumors

b. stipulations

c. logic

d. arguments16

Final Examination

HCA 320 Essentials of Managed Care

65. BATNA stands for “Best _____________ to a Negotiated Agreement.”

a. Alternate

b. Acceleration

c. Advance

d. Arrival

66. Managers can use “____________,” as described by Sterman, to help them understand

dynamic complexity and gain insight into sources of policy resistance.

a. corporate models

b. corporate simulators

c. management models

d. management simulators

67. ____________ learning is when problem solvers adjust their behavior and work processes in

response to changing events or trends.

a. Adaptive

b. Creative

c. Organizational

d. Generative

68. The ____________ effect is the tendency to infer specific characteristics of a person or

organization from our overall impressions or feelings about that person or organization.

a. abstraction

b. illusory

c. perception

d. halo

69. Through _____________, innovators learn about possible action alternatives, outcome

preferences and contextual factors.

a. guessing

b. actions

c. discovery

d. production

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