Biology

Biology 1406 Lecture Exam II Review

Chapter 2.3

1. How many covalent bonds can carbon form?

2. Define: organic, inorganic, macromolecule, biomolecule, monomer, polymer

3. What is a functional group?

4. Be able to identify the structural formula of each of the functional groups.

5. Identify the class of compounds related to each functional group.

6. Identify and differentiate the three types of isomers.

Chapter 3

1. Define condensation and hydrolysis.

2. Identify the four classes of biomolecules; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

3. Identify the elements that make up each of the four classes of biomolecules, the basic monomer for each except lipids and anything unique about each class.

4. Know the four types of carbohydrates; their basic structure and the function(s) of each of the four. Identify two structural poly saccharides and two food storage polysaccharides.

5. Know the functions of neutral fats, phospholipids, waxes, sterols and carotenes. Know the structure of neutral fats, phospholipids and sterols.

6. What is a hydrocarbon, a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat?

7. Identify the possible structural arrangements for polypeptides and proteins, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.

8. Recognize that nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides. Know that a nucleotide is made of a five carbon sugar, a nitrogen base and a phosphate.

9. Know the functions of DNA and RNA.

10. Know the base pairing relationship for DNA and RNA.

Chapter 4

1. Recognize that the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life.

2. Know the cell theory.

3. Know that cell size is determined by the surface volume ratio. As a cell grows the volume increases faster than the surface.

4. Know that the resolution limit for the light microscope is 0.2 m micrometers.

5. Know that the transmission electron microscope has the highest magnification and resolution.

6. Recognize that the scanning electron microscope produces high resolution three dimensional images.

7. Define the differences between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.

8. Differentiate between plant and animal cells.

9. Explain the role of the nucleus in the cell.

10. Define: nuclear envelope, chromatin, chromosome, nucleolus, nuclear pore and nuclear lamina

11. Define the structure and function of the organelles of the endomembrane system. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, transport vesicle, lysosome and plasma membrane.

12. Identify the organelles that probably arose as endosymbiotic bacteria (prokaryotes).

13. Define the structure and function of peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, contractile vacuole, cell vacuole, mitochondria, proplastids, chromoplast, leucoplast and chloroplast.

14. Explain the structure and function of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Recognize that all three have structural roles in cells but only microtubules and microfilaments are involved in cell movements.

15. Identify the structure and function of cilia, flagella, centrioles and basal bodies.

16. Define the cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix and cell wall for plant cells. Identify the role of collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectins and integrins if the extracellular matrix of animal cells.

17. Differentiate between the primary and secondary cell walls. What is the primary structural component of plant cell walls?

18. Define desmosomes, gap junctions, tight junctions and plasmodesmata. Recognize that desmosomes, gap junctions and tight junctions are only found in animals and plasmodesmata are only in plants.

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