Biology

Nutrition Evaluation Project

BIOL 1322

You will use this file as a working copy. You will transfer your answers to the answer sheet file in WORD and upload that file to the assignment dropbox within Eagle Online before the deadline given in the syllabus.

Energy balance is defined as: Energy in = Energy out, both expressed in calories.

Energy in would be the calories we consume in a day from food and beverages.

Energy out equals energy expenditure–the calories the body needs to support its basal

metabolism (involuntary activities that are necessary to support life based on your height,

weight, age and gender) in addition to the calories needed for your voluntary activities.

In the equations that follow, your voluntary activities will be represented by a Physical

Activity (PA) factor. You can choose a number in-between such as 1.07 or 1.21.

Sedentary: Men 1.0 Women 1.0

Low active: Men 1.11 Women 1.12

Active: Men1.25 Women 1.27

Very Active: Men 1.48 Women 1.45

Here are two methods for determining energy expenditure (Energy out)

Section A

Short form

Males: Weight in kilos x 24 x PA

Females: Weight in kilos x 22 x PA

Kg = your weight in kilos (weight in pounds/2.2)

Multiply your weight in kilos times 24 (men) or 22 (women). Then multiply this

number by your Physical Activity (PA) factor.

1.Answer_____________________ calories expended

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER). Remember to use the same PA as in #1 above.

Female: EER= [354 – (6.91 x age)] + PA x [(9.36 x kilos) + (726 x meters)]

Page 2

Male: EER= [662 – (9.53 x age)] + PA x [(15.91 x kilos) + (539.6 x meters)]

Kg = weight in Kilograms

Meters = height in meters

Age = age in years

2.Answer __________________ calories expended

Compare the two answers for energy out (energy expended).

What is the difference in calories between the Short Form and the EER

(Estimated Energy Requirement)?

3. ____________________________________

Which of the two do you think is the more accurate and why?

4. _________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

Think about your eating habits and answer the following questions:

5. Do you eat when you are hunger and stop when you are comfortably full?_____

6. Do you deprive yourself from eating certain “bad” foods? If so which?______________________________________________________________

7. Do you practice regimen eating such as: no eating after 7 PM at night? If so, what is your regimen?_____________________________________________________________

8. Do you ever skip meals? If so which meals and why?_______________________

____________________________________________________________________

9. After looking at your answers to 5 through 8, are there any changes you would make in your diet? If so, which? If not, why not? Write a paragraph here.

Section B

Body Composition/Healthy Weight

We will now turn our attention to determining the risk our body weight has on our health. Several body tissues contribute to your body weight: lean mass (organs and muscle), fat mass (visceral and subcutaneous—apple and pear shape respectively), mineral (bone) and water (intra and extracellular—usually about 60% of body weight).

Page 3

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Use a BMI Table in the module to determine your BMI.

10. BMI number ___________

11. Indicate if you are: underweight/healthy/overweight/obese _____________

Waist Circumference

Waist Circumference is an indicator of central body fatness (visceral fat). Place your hands on your hips. This is your waist. This will usually fall just on or below the belly button. See: mckinley.illinois.edu/handouts/waist_circumference/waist_circumference.htm for more info.

Female: Your waist should be below 35 inches (88 centimeters)

Males: Your waist should be below 40 inches (102 centimeters)

12. What is your waist circumference? _____________

13. Indicate if you are below the cutoffs for your gender: yes________ no _________ Frame Size

Your frame size is an indicator of your mineral mass. Those with large frames would weigh more at a given height than those with smaller frames. First, measure your wrist (in centimeters). Then divide your wrist circumference into your height in centimeters (not meters). This is your r value. Use the table below to determine your frame size from your r value.

Frame Size Male r value Female r value

Small >10.4 >11.0 Medium 0.6-10.4 10.1-11.0 Large <9.6 <10.1

14. Indicate your frame size: small/medium/large ___________________

15. How would your frame size influence your interpretation of your BMI? Write a sentence.

Percent Body Fat (This is optional ONLY for those taking the course online.)

Our interest in body weight is really directed toward what proportion of our weight is fat

compared to lean (muscle) rather than an absolute body weight. Overweight may come from

being over fat or over lean (heavily muscled). If you have access to a health club or gym,

you may be able to have your percent body fat determined for you by using a machine that

uses the principle of bioelectrical impedance or by interpreting measurements obtained from

caliper readings (anthropometrics). Another option is a bathroom scale with the ability to

determine percent body fat. You need to know the cutoffs for male and female that follow:

Men’s Acceptable Body Fatness

12% to 18%

Women’s Acceptable Body Fatness

18% to 25%

As people age, body composition changes, therefore the percent body fat ranges broaden for

each sex. Age 40 divides the younger and older population. Body fatness negatively affects

health at a cut off of 22% for young men and 25% for older men; 32% for young women and

35% for older women.

16. Indicate your body fatness _____________

17. Is it within the acceptable range? _________

Other indicators of health are: Your blood pressure. You can obtain a fairly accurate blood pressure reading at the pharmacy department of a grocery or drug store if you have not had a doctor’s appointment recently.)

18. What is your blood pressure reading?_______________

19. Is your blood pressure in the healthy range? __________________

Your blood lipids. If you have had your blood lipids checked recently, record your result.

20. Total cholesterol mg/dl_______________/healthy? Yes or no____________

21. LDL cholesterol mg/dl_______________/ healthy? Yes or no____________

22. HDL cholesterol mg/dl_______________/ healthy? Yes or no____________

You can always donate blood at a Red Cross Center to obtain free blood lipid data.

Essay Questions:

23. Look at your responses for Section B, numbers 10 to 22, and write a long paragraph about your overall health status. Back up your statements by using data from this assessment.

24. Of all the health risk indicators–BMI, central body fatness, and percent body fat–which ONE of the three is the best at predicting health risk in general (not for you specifically). Identify the health risks and explain why in a 5 to 6 sentence paragraph.

Scenario Now that you know your energy expenditure (EER), let’s play around with some numbers. Consider this situation. You have eaten the lunch below—cheeseburger, French fries, and cola drink—and you wonder if you may have overindulged. Complete the following table to play out this scenario.

Menu item Cheeseburger French Fries Cola Total grams Energy (calories)
Amount Quarter pounder Large fries 12 fl oz
Carbohydrates 38 g 68 g 41g
Protein 28 g 8 g 0 g
Fat 30 g 26 g 0 g
Total Calories

25. What percentage of your daily calorie needs did you consume during lunch: (lunch calories above/your EER calculated from #2) ___________________________

26. Would you recommend a very large dinner for yourself if you wanted to eat only your daily calorie needs (EER) and you had a breakfast of about 500 calories? YES NO

Explain briefly: ______________________________________________________________________________

It takes 3500 calories to lose 1 pound in a week:

27. How many calories per day would you need to take away from your daily calorie intake to lose 1 lb per week? _______________

28. A 12-ounce can of regular Coke has 140 calories. How many cans of Coke would you need to take away in order to lose one pound a week? Show your work.

Let’s find an alternative to cutting back on Coke. Go online to whatscookingamerica.net/Information/CalorieBurnChart.htm pick one activity for yourself (pick an activity that you can handle considering your current state of fitness) and determine how many calories you would burn doing that activity for 45 minutes. Follow this example: Calories burned per pound per minute (badminton is: .044) x (times) your exact weight (140 pounds)  = (equals)  total calories burned per minute (6.16 calories burned per minute)  x (times) minutes of activity (45 minutes)  = (equals)  277 total calories burned per activity.

29. Activity chosen__________________________________________

30. Calories burned in 45 minutes________________________________

(Show work below using example above. Use the symbols: + add; – subtract, x multiply, / divide)

31. Would you have to exercise more or less than 45 minutes/day in order to lose one pound a week? (refer to #27 above) _______________________

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