Applied Sciences

Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders
Maladaptive responses to disorders are compensatory mechanisms that ultimately have adverse health effects for patients. For instance, a patient’s allergic reaction to peanuts might lead to anaphylactic shock, or a patient struggling with depression might develop a substance-abuse problem. To properly diagnose and treat patients, advanced practice nurses must understand both the pathophysiology of disorders and potential maladaptive responses that some disorders cause.

Consider immune disorders, such as HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and systemic lupus E. What are resulting maladaptive responses for patients with these disorders?

To prepare:

Review Chapter 5 and Chapter 7 in the Huether and McCance text, as well as the Yi, et al, article in the Learning Resources. Reflect on the concept of maladaptive responses to disorders.

Select two of the following immune disorders: HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and/or systemic lupus E (SLE).

Think about the pathophysiology of each disorder you selected. Consider the compensatory mechanisms that the disorders trigger. Then, compare the resulting maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders.

Consider the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with these disorders and why.

Select one of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Consider how your selected factor might impact the disorder. Then, reflect on how your selected factor might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce any negative side effects.

Questions to be addressed in my paper:

A brief description of the pathophysiology of the immune disorders you selected.

Explain how the maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders differ.

Then, describe the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with these immune disorders and why.

Explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of each disorder as well as the effects of prescribed drugs.

Explain any measures you might take to help reduce any negative side effects.

Summary with Conclusion


1) 2-3 pages (addressing the 5 questions above excluding the title page and reference page).

2) Kindly follow APA format for the citation and references! References should be between the period of 2011 and 2016. Please utilize the references at least three below as much as possible and the rest from yours.

3) Make headings for each question.


Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Chapter 5, “Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing”

This chapter examines how the body responds to injury and infection by exploring the first, second, and third lines of defense. It also covers wound healing and alterations of the wound-healing process.

Chapter 6, “Adaptive Immunity”

This chapter examines the third line of defense, adaptive immunity. It also covers the roles of antigens and immunogens, the humoral immune response, cell-mediated immunity, and the production of B and T lymphocytes in the immune response.

Chapter 7, “Infection and Defects in Mechanisms of Defense”

This chapter covers the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of disorders resulting from infection, deficiencies in immunity, and hypersensitivity. It also examines the pathophysiology of an important immune disorder: HIV/AIDS.

Chapter 8, “Stress and Disease”

This chapter evaluates the impact of stress on various body systems and the immune system. It also examines coping mechanisms and disorders related to stress.

Chapter 39, “Structure, Function, and Disorders of the Integument”

This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of skin. It then covers effects of aging on skin, as well as disorders of the skin, hair, and nails.

Chapter 40, “Alterations of Integument in Children”

This chapter covers alterations of the integument that affect children. These include acne vulgaris, dermatitis, infections of the skin, insect bites and parasites, vascular disorders, and other skin disorders.

Poole Arcangelo, V., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Chapter 8, “Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy”

This chapter covers factors that impact the selection of an antimicrobial treatment regimen. It also examines the clinical uses, adverse events, and drug interactions of various antimicrobial agents, such as penicillin

Chapter 12, “Fungal Infections of the Skin”

This chapter explores the pathophysiology of several fungal infections of the skin, as well as related drug treatments. It also examines the importance of patient education when managing these infections.

Chapter 14, “Bacterial Infections of the Skin”

This chapter begins by examining causes of bacterial infections. It then explores the importance of selecting an appropriate agent for treating bacterial infections.

Chapter 32, “Urinary Tract Infection”

This chapter covers drugs used to treat urinary tract infections. It also identifies special considerations when treating geriatric patients, pediatric patients, and women.

Chapter 35, “Sexually Transmitted Infections”

This chapter outlines the causes, pathophysiology, and drug treatment of six sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papilloma virus infection (HPV). It also examines the importance of selecting the proper agent and monitoring patient response to treatment.

Chapter 48, “Human Immunodeficiency Virus”

This chapter presents the causes, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and prevention methods for HIV. It also covers various methods of drug treatment and patient factors to consider when selecting, administering, and managing drug treatments.

Yi, H., Shidlo, A., & Sandfort, T. (2011). Assessing maladaptive responses to the stress of being at risk of HIV infection among HIV-negative gay men in New York City. Journal of Sex Research, 48(1), 62–73.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This study assesses behaviors and attitudes toward HIV based on knowledge about infection and advances in medical treatment. It also examines the impact of maladaptive responses to the stress of HIV risk.

Scourfield, A., Waters, L., & Nelson, M. (2011). Drug combinations for HIV: What’s new? Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 9(11), 1001–1011. Retrieved from

This article examines current therapies and strategies for treating HIV patients. It also examines factors that impact the selection of therapy, including drug interactions, personalization of therapy, costs, management of comorbidities, and patient response. (2012). Retrieved from

This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012b). Antimicrobials. Baltimore, MD: Author.

This media presentation outlines principles of antimicrobial therapy.

Optional Resources
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2012, from

Haymarket Media, Inc. (2012). Monthly prescribing reference [Online database]. Retrieved from

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2012). Retrieved from

Medscape. (2012). Retrieved from

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