ORGANIZING AND STAFFING
Objectives (1 of 4)
Define the basic management function of organizing and identify the steps in the organizing process.
Define the key concepts of hierarchy, chain of command, splintered authority, and concurring authority.
Differentiate between line and staff relationships and identify basic line and staff relationships.
Describe the dual pyramid organization arrangement found in healthcare authority patterns.
Objectives (2 of 4)
Identify the basic patterns of departmentation.
Introduce the concept of the matrix organization and define the applicability of this apparently contradictory concept.
Objectives (3 of 4)
Identify patterns of organizational flexibility: temps, outsourcing, and use of independent contractors and consultants.
Identify the principles involved in developing an organizational chart.
Describe the elements of a job analysis.
Introduce job descriptions, including their uses and the elements necessary in their development.
Objectives (4 of 4)
Describe the elements of the job rating and classification system.
Identify the content and uses of the management inventory.
Describe the role and activities of the professional practitioner as consultant.
Definition of Organizing
The process of grouping the necessary responsibilities and activities into workable units, determining the lines of authority and communication, and developing patterns of coordination.
Underlying Premises (1 of 2)
A common goal
Need for clear authority-responsibility relationships
Reconciliation of power and authority elements
Underlying Premises (2 of 2)
Need for reduction of inevitable conflict
Reconciliation of individual needs with organizational needs
Preserving unity of command
Necessity of delegating authority
Process of Organizing
Goal recognition and statement
Review of organizational environment
Determination of structure needed to reach the goal
Determination of authority relationships and development of organizational chart, job descriptions, and support documents
Concepts and Principles
Scalar principle: chain of command
Unity of command
Principle of parity
Effect of Split Reporting
Worker must balance two reporting relationships
Potential burnout when there is conflict between the two authority holders
Doubles the communication demands
Overcoming Problems of Splintered Authority
Managers pool their authority to make decisions and solve problems.
Refer the problem to a higher level for reconciliation.
Reorganize to eliminate splintered-authority situations.
Span of Control Determined by:
Type of work
Degree of worker training
Flow of work
Availability of staff specialists
Organization’s value system
Line and Staff
A LINE function provides service and directly advances the objectives of the organization.
A STAFF activity supports the line activity.
The right of staff individuals to exercise a limited form of authority over the specialized function for which they are responsible, regardless of who exercises line authority over the employees performing the activity.
Line and Staff Interaction
Personal assistant to a line authority holder (e.g., “the assistant to . . . ”)
Specialized assistance (e.g., legal counsel)
Full department of specialized staff (e.g., architectural planning)
The Dual Pyramid
Common in healthcare organizations
Organization of medical staff as one track
Organization of administrative units as a second track
Each track with its distinctive authority-responsibility designations
Chief of staff
Chief of service
President of the medical staff
Departments May Be Established According to:
Function (common in healthcare)
Product (common in manufacturing)
Territory (common in outreach services)
Customer (common with large, specific-need groups)
Time (frequent with around-the-clock services)
Process (work procedures)
Number (of workers doing the same work)
Flexibility in Organizational Structure
Temporary agency services
The Organizational Chart
Major functions, usually by department
Relationships of functions or departments
Channels of supervision
Lines of authority and communication
Positions (by job title) within departments or units
Job Description Content
Uses of the Job Description (1 of 2)
Legal, regulatory, contractual, and accrediting mandates
Basis for job rating, classification, and wage and salary administration
Basis for categorization under Fair Labor Standards Law and Collective Bargaining
Uses of the Job Description (2 of 2)
Basis for orientation and training
Basis for performance evaluation, error correction, retraining requirements, and grievance determinations
Basis for determining eligibility for claims under workers’ compensation, OSHA, and similar programs
Sequence of Development
In preparation for development of new job descriptions or the revision of existing ones, the manager:
Carries out a job analysis
Prepares the new or revised job description
Applies the job classification criteria
Job rating elements include:
Complexity of duties
Contact with patients and families
Degree of supervision received
Degree of required training
Mental and physical demands
The Management Inventory (1 of 2)
An overview of anticipated changes in the workforce
Manager gives particular attention to:
Known, planned retirements
Planned temporary leaves (e.g. military duty, family leave)
The Management Inventory (2 of 2)
Cross-training capacity and needs
Phase out or consolidation of positions due to planned systems changes
The Credentialed Practitioner as Consultant
One time only
Initial survey with implementation of findings
Ongoing maintenance of project or program
The independent contractor
Importance of clear definition of relationship (e.g., IRS definitions)