Applied Sciences

About the Cover Image

The Feast of Saint George, (oil on panel), Marten van Cleve (1527–81) Van Cleve was one of several Flemish painters from the time known for their depictions of peasant life, especially feast days, weddings and festivals. He established a major workshop in Antwerp, one of the major commercial centers of the time. He and his family were most likely in Antwerp during the religious conflicts of the 1560s and 1570s but he chose to depict mainly peaceful scenes.


The Making of the West Peoples and Cultures

Sixth Edition

Volume I: To 1750

Lynn Hunt University of California, Los Angeles

Thomas R. Martin College of the Holy Cross Barbara H. Rosenwein

Loyola University Chicago Bonnie G. Smith

Rutgers University

FOR BEDFORD/ST. MARTIN’S Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Learning Humanities: Edwin Hill Senior Program Director for History: Michael Rosenberg Senior Program Manager for History: William J. Lombardo History Marketing Manager: Melissa Rodriguez Director of Content Development, Humanities: Jane Knetzger Senior Developmental Editor: Leah R. Strauss Senior Content Project Manager: Kendra LeFleur Senior Workflow Project Supervisor: Jennifer Wetzel Production Coordinator: Brianna Lester Editorial Assistant: Belinda Huang Media Project Manager: Michelle Camisa Project Management: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Editorial Services: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Cartographer: Mapping Specialists, Ltd. Photo Editor: Jennifer MacMillan Photo Researcher: Bruce Carson Permissions Editor: Kalina Ingham Design Director, Content Management: Diana Blume Text Design: Lisa Buckley Cover Design: William Boardman Cover Art: The Feast of Saint George, (oil on panel), Cleve, Marten van (1527–81)/Private Collection/Photo © Christie’s Images/Bridgeman Images

Copyright © 2019, 2017 Bedford/St. Martin’s

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher.

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For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116

ISBN: 978-1-319-22210-9 (mobi)

Acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the art selections they cover; these acknowledgments and copyrights constitute an extension of the copyright page.

Preface Why This Book This Way We are delighted to present the Value Edition of The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, Sixth Edition. With this edition, The Making of the West combines the best of the print and digital platforms while staying true to the fundamental approach that has made this book a popular choice for both instructors and students. We continue to link the history of the West to wider developments in the world. We continue to offer a synthetic approach to history — from military to gender — that integrates different approaches rather than privileging one or two. And we continue to believe that students benefit from a solid chronological framework when they are trying to understand events of the past. This new edition is priced affordably, to save students money and keep the overall course budget manageable. Bedford’s learning platform, known as LaunchPad, is loaded with the full-color e-book including two primary source features per chapter plus LearningCurve, an adaptive learning tool; the popular Sources of The Making of the West documents collection; additional primary sources; a wealth of assessment tools; chapter summative quizzes; and more.

Helping Instructors Teach with Digital Resources We are pleased to offer The Making of the West in LaunchPad, Macmillan’s premier learning platform that offers an intuitive, interactive e-book and course space. Free when packaged with a bound text or available at a low price when used alone, LaunchPad is ready to use as is, or it can be edited and customized with your own material and assigned right away.

Developed with extensive feedback from history instructors and students, LaunchPad for The Making of the West includes the

complete narrative of the print book, the companion reader Sources of The Making of the West by Katharine Lualdi, and LearningCurve adaptive quizzing that is designed to get students to read before they come to class. With new source-based questions in the test bank and in LearningCurve and the ability to sort test bank questions by chapter learning objectives, instructors now have more ways to test students on their understanding of sources and narrative in the book. The LaunchPad e-book features three skill-building features in every chapter. In LaunchPad, there is an autograded multiple-choice quiz for the primary source features.

Primary Source Analysis gives students a more direct experience of the past through original voices. Whether it is an excerpt from an anonymous Sophist’s handbook of the late fifth century B.C.E. (Chapter 3), twelfth-century letters between two anonymous lovers (Chapter 11), or Marie de Sévigné’s description of the French court (Chapter 16), primary documents offer windows into the thoughts and actions of the past. Each document is introduced by a headnote and followed by Questions to Consider. Contrasting Views compares two or more conflicting primary sources focused on a central event, person, or development — such as the Roman attitudes toward Cleopatra (Chapter 4), the Mongols (Chapter 12), and the consumer revolution of the eighteenth century (Chapter 17) — enabling students to understand history from a variety of contemporaneous perspectives. Each document pairing is introduced with a headnote and is followed by Questions to Consider. NEW! Terms of History, now in every chapter, looks not only at the origin of a term — such as democracy (Chapter 3), barbarian (Chapter 7), and gothic (Chapter 11) — but also at the changing meaning of the term over time, which further underscores historical skill building.

For instructors who need a mobile and accessible option for delivering adaptive quizzing with the narrative alone, Macmillan’s

Achieve Read & Practice e-book platform offers an exceptionally easy-to-use and affordable option. This simple product pairs the Value Edition with the power of LearningCurve’s quizzing, all in a format that students can use wherever they go. Available for the first time with this edition, Achieve Read & Practice’s interactive e-book, adaptive quizzing, and gradebook are built with an intuitive interface that can be read on mobile devices and are fully accessible and available at an affordable price.

To learn more about the benefits of LearningCurve, LaunchPad, Achieve Read & Practice, and the difference versions to package with these digital tools, see the Versions and Supplements section.

About The Making of the West Even with all the exciting digital alternatives now available, our primary goal remains the same: to demonstrate that the history of the West is the story of an ongoing process, not a finished result with one fixed meaning. There is not one Western people or culture that has existed from the beginning until now. Instead, the history of the West includes many different peoples and cultures. To convey these ideas, we have written a sustained story of the West’s development in a broad, global context that reveals the cross-cultural interactions fundamental to the shaping of Western politics, societies, cultures, and economies. To highlight the importance of this broad notion of the West, the first chapter opens with a section on the origins and contested meaning of the term Western civilization.

New Coverage and Current Scholarship As always, we have also incorporated the latest scholarly findings throughout the book so that students and instructors have a text on which they can confidently rely, including updated Suggested References at the end of each chapter. In the sixth edition, we have included new and updated discussions of topics such as the agency of women in ancient Greece, the structures of Islamic societies in the Middle Ages, the growth of the European slave trade in the eighteenth

and nineteenth centuries, and a host of new developments in the past few years. The final chapter now includes a discussion of the economic, technological, and cultural changes since the downturn of 2008 that have shaped the rise of populism, including rising immigration, the increasingly interventionist policies of Russia, and the unraveling of the “Arab Spring” with the catastrophe of the Syrian civil war and the continuing threat of ISIS.

Chronological Framework We know from our own teaching that introductory students need a solid chronological framework, one with enough familiar benchmarks to make the material easy to grasp. Each chapter is organized around the main events, people, and themes of a period in which the West significantly changed; thus, students learn about political and military events and social and cultural developments as they unfolded. This chronological integration also makes it possible for students to see the interconnections among varieties of historical experience — between politics and cultures, between public events and private experiences, between wars and diplomacy and everyday life. For teachers, our chronological approach ensures a balanced account and provides the opportunity to present themes within their greater context. But perhaps best of all, this approach provides a text that reveals history as a process that is constantly alive, subject to pressures, and able to surprise us.

An Expanded Vision of the West Cultural borrowing between the peoples of Europe and their neighbors has characterized Western civilization from the beginning. Thus, we have insisted on an expanded vision of the West that includes the United States and fully incorporates Scandinavia, eastern Europe, and the Ottoman Empire. Now this vision encompasses an even wider global context than before, as Latin America, Africa, China, Japan, and India also come into the story. We have been able to offer sustained treatment of crucial topics such as Islam and to provide a more thorough examination of globalization than any

competing text. Study of Western history provides essential background to today’s events, from debates over immigration to conflicts in the Middle East. Instructors have found this synthesis essential for helping students understand the West amid today’s globalization.

Study Aids to Support Active Reading and Learning We know from our own teaching that students need all the help they can get to absorb and make sense of information, to think analytically, and to understand that history itself is often debated and constantly revised. With these goals in mind, we retained the class- tested learning and teaching aids that worked well in the previous editions, but we have also done more to help students distill the central story of each age.

Focused Reading Each chapter begins with a vivid anecdote that draws readers into the atmosphere of the period and introduces the chapter’s main themes, accompanied by a full-page illustration. The Chapter Focus poses an overarching question at the start of the narrative to help guide students’ reading. Strategically placed at the end of each major section, a Review Question helps students assimilate core points in digestible increments. Key Terms and names that appear in boldface in the text have been updated to concentrate on likely test items; these terms are defined in the Glossary of Key Terms and People at the end of the book.

Reviewing the Chapter At the end of each chapter, the Conclusion further reinforces the central developments covered in the chapter. The Chapter Review begins by asking students to revisit the key terms, identifying each and explaining its significance. Review Questions are also presented again so that students can revisit the chapter’s core points. Making Connections questions then follow and prompt students to think across the sections of a given chapter. A chronology of Important

Events enables students to see the sequence and overlap of important events in a given period and asks students a guiding question that links two or more events in the chapter.

Geographic Literacy The map program of The Making of the West has been praised by reviewers for its comprehensiveness. In each chapter, we offer two types of maps: full-size maps show major developments and a Mapping the West summary map at the end of each chapter provides a snapshot of the West at the close of a transformative period and helps students visualize the West’s changing contours over time. All of these maps — plus up to four “spot” maps per chapter that are positioned within the discussion right where students need them — appear in full color in LaunchPad.

Images and Illustrations We have integrated art as fully as possible into the narrative. Over 100 images and illustrations were carefully chosen to reflect this edition’s broad topical coverage and geographic inclusion, reinforce the text, and show the varieties of visual sources from which historians build their narratives and interpretations. All artifacts, illustrations, paintings, and photographs are contemporaneous with the chapter; there are no anachronistic illustrations. The captions for the maps and art help students learn how to read visuals, and we have frequently included specific questions or suggestions for comparisons that might be developed.

Acknowledgments In the vital process of revision, the authors have benefited from repeated critical readings by many talented scholars and teachers. Our sincere thanks go to the following instructors, whose comments often challenged us to rethink or justify our interpretations and who always provided a check on accuracy down to the smallest detail: David S. Bachrach, University of New Hampshire; Robert Bond, Mira Costa College; Curtis Bostick, Southern Utah University; Trevor

Corless, Cégep Heritage College; Michael Frassetto, University of Delaware; William L. Grose, Wytheville Community College; Joanne Klein, Boise State University; Rosemary Moore, University of Iowa; Lisa Payne Ossian, Des Moines Area Community College; Svanur Petursson, Rutgers University, Newark; David Pizzo, Murray State University; Allison E. Stein, Pellissippi State Community College; Kathryn Steinhaus, Seminole State College; Erin W. Stone, University of West Florida; Sarah L. Sullivan, McHenry County College; Nancy Vavra, University of Colorado at Boulder; and Mirna Zakic, Ohio University, Main Campus.

Many colleagues, friends, and family members have made contributions to this work. They know how grateful we are. We also wish to acknowledge and thank the publishing team at Bedford/St. Martin’s who did so much to bring this revised edition to completion: editorial director Edwin Hill; publisher for history Michael Rosenberg; program manager for history Bill Lombardo; developmental editor Leah Strauss; media editor Tess Fletcher; editorial assistant Belinda Huang; marketing manager Melissa Rodriguez; content production manager Kendra LeFleur; project manager, Andrea Stefanowicz; art researcher Bruce Carson; and cover designer Billy Boardman.

Our students’ questions and concerns have shaped much of this work, and we welcome all our readers’ suggestions, queries, and criticisms. Please contact us at our respective institutions or via

Lynn Hunt Thomas Martin Barbara Rosenwein Bonnie Smith

Versions and Supplements Adopters of The Making of the West and their students have access to abundant print and digital resources and tools, including documents, assessment and presentation materials, the acclaimed Bedford Series in History and Culture volumes, and much more. The LaunchPad course space for The Making of the West provides access to the narrative as well as a wealth of primary sources and other features, along with assignment and assessment opportunities at the ready. Achieve Read & Practice supplies adaptive quizzing and our mobile, accessible Value Edition e-book, in one easy-to-use, affordable product. See the following text for more information, visit the book’s catalog site at, or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative.

Get the Right Version for Your Class To accommodate different course lengths and course budgets, The Making of the West is available in several different formats to best suit your course needs. The comprehensive The Making of the West includes a full-color art program and a robust set of features. The Making of the West Value Edition offers a trade-sized two-color option with the unabridged narrative and selected art and maps at a steep discount. The Value Edition is also offered at the lowest price point in loose-leaf format, and these versions are available as e- books. To get the best value of all, package a new print book with LaunchPad or Achieve Read & Practice at no additional charge to get the best that each format offers. LaunchPad users get a print version for easy portability with an interactive e-book for the full-feature text and course space, along with LearningCurve and loads of additional assignment and assessment options; Achieve Read & Practice users get a print version with a mobile, interactive Value Edition e-book plus LearningCurve adaptive quizzing in one exceptionally

affordable, easy-to-use product.

Combined Volume (Chapters 1–29): available in paperback, Value, loose-leaf, and e-book formats and in LaunchPad and Achieve Read & Practice Volume 1: To 1750 (Chapters 1–17): available in paperback, Value, loose-leaf, e-book formats and in LaunchPad and Achieve Read & Practice Volume 2: Since 1500 (Chapters 14–29): available in paperback, Value, loose-leaf, and e-book formats and in LaunchPad and Achieve Read & Practice

As noted in the following text, any of these volumes can be packaged with additional titles for a discount. To get ISBNs for discount packages, visit or contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s representative.

Assign LaunchPad — An Assessment-Ready Interactive E-book and Course Space Available for discount purchase on its own or for packaging with new books at no additional charge, LaunchPad is a breakthrough solution for history courses. Intuitive and easy to use for students and instructors alike, LaunchPad is ready to use as is and can be edited, customized with your own material, and assigned quickly. LaunchPad for Making of the West includes Bedford/St. Martin’s high-quality content all in one place, including the full interactive e- book and companion reader, Sources of The Making of the West, plus LearningCurve adaptive quizzing; guided reading activities designed to help students read actively for key concepts; autograded quizzes for primary sources, and chapter summative quizzes. Through a wealth of adaptive and summative assessment, including the adaptive learning program of LearningCurve (see the full description ahead), students gain confidence and get into their reading before class. These features, plus additional primary source documents, video tools for making video assignments, map activities, flashcards, and

customizable test banks, make LaunchPad an invaluable asset for any instructor.

LaunchPad easily integrates with course management systems, and with fast ways to build assignments, rearrange chapters, and add new pages, sections, or links, it lets teachers build the courses they want to teach and to hold students accountable. For more information, visit or to arrange a demo, contact us at

Assign LearningCurve So Your Students Come to Class Prepared Students using LaunchPad receive access to LearningCurve for The Making of the West. Assigning LearningCurve in place of reading quizzes is easy for instructors, and the reporting features help instructors track overall class trends and spot topics that are giving students trouble so they can adjust their lectures and class activities. This online learning tool is popular with students because it was designed to help them rehearse content at their own pace in a nonthreatening, gamelike environment. The feedback for wrong answers provides instructional coaching and sends students back to the book for review. Students answer as many questions as necessary to reach a target score, with repeated chances to revisit material they haven’t mastered. When LearningCurve is assigned, students come to class better prepared.

Assign Achieve Read & Practice So Your Students Can Read and Study Wherever They Go Available for discount purchase on its own or for packaging with new books at no additional charge, Achieve Read & Practice is Bedford/St. Martin’s most affordable digital solution for history courses. Intuitive and easy to use for both students and instructors, Achieve Read & Practice is ready to use as is, and can be assigned quickly. Achieve Read & Practice for The Making of the West includes the Value

Edition interactive e-book, LearningCurve formative quizzing, assignment tools, and a gradebook. All this is built with an intuitive interface that can be read on mobile devices and is fully accessible and available at a discounted price so anyone can use it. Instructors can set due dates for reading assignments and LearningCurve quizzes in just a few clicks, making it a simple and affordable way to engage students with the narrative and hold students accountable for course reading so they will come to class better prepared. For more information, visit or to arrange a demo, contact us at

iClicker, Active Learning Simplified iClicker offers simple, flexible tools to help you give students a voice and facilitate active learning in the classroom. Students can participate with the devices they bring to class using our iClicker Reef mobile apps (which work with smartphones, tablets, or laptops) or iClicker remotes. We’ve now integrated iClicker with Macmillan’s LaunchPad to make it easier than ever to synchronize grades and promote engagement — both in and out of class. iClicker Reef access cards can also be packaged with LaunchPad or your textbook at a significant savings for your students. To learn more, talk to your Macmillan Learning representative or visit us at

Take Advantage of Instructor Resources Bedford/St. Martin’s has developed a rich array of teaching resources for this book and for this course. They range from lecture and presentation materials and assessment tools to course management options. Most can be found in LaunchPad or can be downloaded or ordered at

Bedford Coursepack for Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by D2L, or Moodle. We can help you integrate our rich content into your course management system. Registered instructors can download coursepacks that include our popular free resources and book-

specific content for The Making of the West. Visit to find your version or download your coursepack.

Instructor’s Resource Manual. The instructor’s manual offers both experienced and first-time instructors tools for presenting textbook material in engaging ways. It includes content learning objectives, annotated chapter outlines, and strategies for teaching with the textbook, plus suggestions on how to get the most out of LearningCurve and a survival guide for first-time teaching assistants.

Guide to Changing Editions.

Designed to facilitate an instructor’s transition from the previous edition of The Making of the West to this new edition, this guide presents an overview of major changes as well as of changes in each chapter.

Online Test Bank. The test bank includes a mix of fresh, carefully crafted multiple- choice, matching, short-answer, and essay questions for each chapter. Many of the multiple-choice questions feature a map, an image, or a primary source excerpt as the prompt. All questions appear in easy-to-use test bank software that allows instructors to add, edit, resequence, and print questions and answers. Instructors can also export questions into a variety of course management systems.

The Bedford Lecture Kit: Lecture Outlines, Maps, and Images. Observe carefully and save time with The Bedford Lecture Kit. These presentation materials are downloadable individually from the Instructor Resources tab on They include fully customizable multimedia presentations built around chapter outlines that are embedded with maps, figures, and images from the textbook and are supplemented by more detailed instructor notes on

key points and concepts.

Print, Digital, and Custom Options for More Choice and Value For information on free packages and discounts up to 50%, visit, or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative.

Sources of The Making of the West, Sixth Edition. Thoroughly revised, this companion reader provides written and visual sources to accompany each chapter of The Making of the West. A broad range of source types and themes illuminate historical experience from a diversity of perspectives. Now with a visual source as well as a comparative source pairing in every chapter, this reader offers instructors even more opportunities to promote classroom discussion of primary documents and to help students develop essential historical thinking skills. This companion reader is an exceptional value for students and offers plenty of assignment options for instructors. Available free when packaged with the bound text and included in the LaunchPad e-book with autograded quizzes for each source. In LaunchPad, each chapter of the reader includes special primary source online activities — self-graded exercises that challenge students to assess whether a specific piece of evidence drawn from the sources supports or challenges a conclusion related to a guiding question. Sources of The Making of the West is also available on its own as a downloadable e-book.

NEW Bedford Select for History. Create the ideal textbook for your course with only the chapters you need. Starting from one of our Value Edition history texts, you can rearrange chapters, delete unnecessary chapters, select primary sources from Sources of The Making of the West, Sixth Edition, and add document projects from the Bedford Document Collections, or choose to improve your students’s historical thinking skills with the Bedford Tutorials for History. In addition, you can add your own

original content to create just the book you’re looking for. With Bedford Select, students pay only for material that will be assigned in the course, and nothing more. Order your textbook every semester, or modify from one term to the next. It is easy to build your customized textbook, without compromising the quality and affordability you’ve come to expect from Bedford/St. Martin’s. For more information, visit

NEW The Bedford Document Collections for World History. Available to customize the print text, this collection provides a flexible repository of discovery-oriented primary source projects ready to assign. Each curated project — written by a historian about a favorite topic — poses a historical question and guides students through analysis of the sources. Examples include “The Silk Road: Travel and Trade in Pre-Modern Inner Asia,” “The Spread of Christianity in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries,” “The Singapore Mutiny of 1915: Understanding World War I from a Global Perspective,” and “Living through Perestroika: The Soviet Union in Upheaval, 1985–1991.” For more information, visit

NEW The Bedford Document Collections for World History Print Modules.

Choose one or two document projects from the collection (see above) and add them in print to a Bedford/St. Martin’s title, or select several to be bound together in a custom reader created specifically for your course. Either way, the modules are affordably priced. For more information, contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s representative.

NEW Bedford Tutorials for History. Designed to customize textbooks with resources relevant to individual courses, this collection of brief units, each 16 pages long and loaded with examples, guides students through basic skills such as using historical evidence effectively, working with primary sources, taking effective notes, avoiding plagiarism and citing sources, and more. Up

to two tutorials can be added to a Bedford/St. Martin’s history survey title at no additional charge, freeing you to spend your class time focusing on content and interpretation. For more information, visit

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Brief Contents 1 Early Western Civilization, 400,000–1000 B.C.E. 2 Near East Empires and the Reemergence of Civilization in Greece, 1000–500 B.C.E. 3 The Greek Golden Age, c. 500–c. 400 B.C.E. 4 From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400–30 B.C.E. 5 The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753–44 B.C.E. 6 The Creation of the Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.–284 C.E. 7 The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284–600 C.E. 8 The Heirs of Rome: Islam, Byzantium, and Europe, 600–750 9 From Centralization to Fragmentation, 750–1050 10 Commercial Quickening and Religious Reform, 1050–1150 11 The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150–1215 12 The Medieval Synthesis — and Its Cracks, 1215–1340 13 Crisis and Renaissance, 1340–1492 14 Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation, 1492–1560 15 Wars of Religion and the Clash of Worldviews, 1560–1648 16 Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640– 1700 17 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700–1750

Contents Preface: Why This Book This Way Versions and Supplements Brief Contents Maps and Figures Authors’ Note: The B.C.E./C.E. Dating System CHAPTER 1 Early Western Civilization, 400,000–1000 B.C.E.

From the Stone Age to Mesopotamian Civilization, 400,000– 1000 B.C.E.

Life and Change in the Stone Age The Emergence of Cities in Mesopotamia, 4000–2350 B.C.E. Metals and Empire Making: The Akkadians and the Ur III Dynasty, C. 2350–C. 2000 B.C.E. The Achievements of the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Canaanites, 2000–1000 B.C.E.

Egypt, the First Unified Nation, 3050–1000 B.C.E. From the Unification of Egypt to the Old Kingdom, 3050–2190 B.C.E.

The Middle and New Kingdoms in Egypt, 2061–1081 B.C.E. The Hittites, the Minoans, and the Mycenaeans, 2200–1000 B.C.E.

The Hittites, 1750–1200 B.C.E. The Minoans, 2200–1400 B.C.E. The Mycenaeans, 1800–1000 B.C.E. The Violent End to Early Western Civilization, 1200–1000 B.C.E.

Conclusion Chapter 1 Review

CHAPTER 2 Near East Empires and the Reemergence of

Civilization in Greece, 1000–500 B.C.E. From Dark Age to Empire in the Near East, 1000–500 B.C.E.

The New Empire of Assyria, 900–600 B.C.E. The Neo-Babylonian Empire, 600–539 B.C.E. The Persian Empire, 557–500 B.C.E. The Israelites, Origins to 539 B.C.E.

The Reemergence of Greek Civilization, 1000–750 B.C.E. The Greek Dark Age The Values of the Olympic Games Homer, Hesiod, and Divine Justice in Greek Myth

The Creation of the Greek City-State, 750–500 B.C.E. The Physical Environment of the Greek City-State Trade and “Colonization,” 800–580 B.C.E. Citizenship and Freedom in the Greek City-State

New Directions for the Greek City-State, 750–500 B.C.E. Oligarchy in the City-State of Sparta, 700–500 B.C.E. Tyranny in the City-State of Corinth, 657–585 B.C.E. Democracy in the City-State of Athens, c. 700–500 B.C.E. New Ways of Thought and Expression in Greece, 630–500 B.C.E.

Conclusion Chapter 2 Review

CHAPTER 3 The Greek Golden Age, C. 500–C. 400 B.C.E. Wars between Persia and Greece, 499–479 B.C.E.

From the Ionian Revolt to the Battle of Marathon, 499–490 B.C.E.

The Great Persian Invasion, 480–479 B.C.E. Athenian Confidence in the Golden Age, 478–431 B.C.E.

The Establishment of the Athenian Empire Radical Democracy and Pericles’ Leadership, 461–431 B.C.E. The Urban Landscape in Athens

Tradition and Innovation in Athens’s Golden Age Religious Tradition in a Period of Change Women, Slaves, and Metics Innovative Ideas in Education, Philosophy, History, and Medicine The Development of Greek Tragedy The Development of Greek Comedy

The End of Athens’s Golden Age, 431–403 B.C.E. The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 B.C.E. Athens Defeated: Tyranny and Civil War, 404–403 B.C.E.

Conclusion Chapter 3 Review

CHAPTER 4 From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400–30 B.C.E.

Classical Greece after the Peloponnesian War, 400–350 B.C.E. Athens’s Recovery after the Peloponnesian War The Execution of Socrates, 399 B.C.E. The Philosophy of Plato Aristotle, Scientist and Philosopher Greek Political Disunity

The Rise of Macedonia, 359–323 B.C.E. Macedonian Power and Philip II, 359–336 B.C.E. The Rule of Alexander the Great, 336–323 B.C.E.

The Hellenistic Kingdoms, 323–30 B.C.E. Creating New Kingdoms The Layers of Hellenistic Society The End of the Hellenistic Kingdoms

Hellenistic Culture The Arts under Royal Support Philosophy for a New Age

Scientific Innovation Cultural and Religious Transformations

Conclusion Chapter 4 Review

CHAPTER 5 The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753–44 B.C.E. Roman Social and Religious Traditions

Roman Moral Values The Patron-Client System The Roman Family Education for Public Life Public and Private Religion

From Monarchy to Republic Roman Society under the Kings, 753–509 B.C.E. The Early Roman Republic, 509–287 B.C.E.

Roman Imperialism and Its Consequences Expansion in Italy, 500–220 B.C.E. Wars with Carthage and in the East, 264–121 B.C.E. Greek Influence on Roman Literature and the Arts Stresses on Society from Imperialism

Civil War and the Destruction of the Republic The Gracchus Brothers and Violence in Politics, 133–121 B.C.E. Marius and the Origin of Client Armies, 107–100 B.C.E. Sulla and Civil War, 91–78 B.C.E. Julius Caesar and the Collapse of the Republic, 83–44 B.C.E.

Conclusion Chapter 5 Review

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