Applied Sciences

Wk 5 peer response

Rules: Please thoroughly respond to post but not too wordy or lengthy. Include reference.

HMGT 400

· Loska – Week 5 – Different types of bias in research

Elizabeth posted Sep 21, 2016 8:24 PM

Bias in research is something that every study is at risk for, and that is why peer reviewed journals and research teams are so important.  The systematic review of a peer reviewed research study or journal helps to identify bias and therefore validate the findings.

“Bias is defined as any tendency which prevents unprejudiced consideration of a question.  In research, bias occurs when “systematic error [is] introduced into sampling or testing by selecting or encouraging one outcome or answer over others” (Pannucci & Wilkins, 2010).

Bias can occur during any stage of a research study; Pre-trial bias, bias during trial and bias after trial.  These types of bias can originate from “flawed study design,…interviewer bias…and citation bias” (Pannuci & Wilkins, 2010).

Bias can easily be abused during the collection stage, the formulation of the study, as well as during the conclusions that are stated.  It is almost an ethical responsibility to avoid research bias in order to provide plain, factual data, and remove any personal or professional preference.

Pannucci, C. J., & Wilkins, E. G. (2010). Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 126(2), 619–625. http://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181de24bc

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· Camacho Week 5

Cheryl posted Sep 21, 2016 5:58 PM

There are various types of bias in research.  I was always told that you can have the data say what you want and how you articulate it is the question.  Bias can happen “in planning, data collection, analysis, and publication phases of research” (Oannucci and Wilkens, 2010).  Bias is currently defined as,  “any tendency which prevents unprejudiced consideration of a question” (Dictionary, n.d).  In research, bias occurs when “systematic error [is] introduced into sampling or testing by selecting or encouraging one outcome or answer over others” (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)  Bias has the opportunity to occur at any phase of research, including study design or data collection, as well as in the process of data analysis and publication.   There is a picture I like that can be found at this link http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917255/figure/F1/.  This explains the phases of the bias in research.

There are different types.  A few of them are:

1. Interviewer bias in which we ask certain questions to get the data we want

1. Chronology bias which is when controls are used to compare groups going through intervention

More types are recall bias, transfer bias, performance bias and many others.

Dictionary.comhttp://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bias.

Merriam-Webster.comhttp://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bias.

Pannucci, C. J., & Wilkins, E. G. (2010). Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 126(2), 619–625. http://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181de24bc

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HMGT 495

· Week 5

Kristina posted Sep 20, 2016 9:11 AM

Interpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors.  Investing in developing doctors’ interpersonal skills is essential in maintaining good clinical standards and can be rewarding in the long term. Failing to do so may put patients and doctors at risk.

Good interpersonal skills can lead to Less litigation, Creating a friendly environment for patients and staff, Increased productivity of the staff, Effective time management, Improvement in patient care, Development of good reputation for the institute or hospital and High quality of training for employees and trainees.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3078212/

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· Week 5 Discussion

Sean posted Sep 19, 2016 9:44 AM

A key to supervising employees that are underperforming is to figure out what motivates them. Some people respond to punishment while others respond better to positive reinforcement. Sometimes all that is needed is a candid conversation about their performance. When I have an issue with a subordinate, I have a closed door meeting and ask what is causing their underperformance. I also like to ask the subordinate if there is anything I can do as a supervisor to help them perform better. I also use a technique called ‘trust but verify’. This strategy means that I trust my subordinates to complete all work assigned to them. However, I often verify and complete a quality assessment. This builds a culture of compliance within the organization and motivates employees because they know the supervisor is monitoring their work. Finally, a large part of motivating employees is documentation. If an employee has been counseled and is still underperforming this needs to be documented for any future counseling.

– Sean

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