Applied Sciences

PART 1
PHE4015 *2pgs* Answer all questions*
*NO plagiarism, NO copy /paste, Recent References only (within the last five years*
Refer to the following lecture:

· Demographic and Epidemiologic Transitions

Country Profile
Choose a country that you would like to have more information on that is not your native country. Using–Websites (World Health Organization, United Nations, etc.), create a demographic profile of your country (United States).

On the basis of your research, create a 2-page report that includes:

· Age, gender, race, socioeconomic class, religions of the country

· Progress toward MDGs

· Major health concerns of the country

· Status of the country in terms of epidemiologic or demographic transition

Be sure to support your points for each of the components in parentheses with data from the program and outside research.

Lecture—Demographic and Epidemiological Transitions

To understand how countries, change over time, it is important to understand the concept of both demographic and epidemiological transitions. The first concept, demographic transition, results from a change in which there is a shift in the fertility and mortality patterns within the country. Early on in the history of a country, it is typical to see patterns of both high fertility and high mortality. This leads to a slow trend in the overall growth of the population of the country.

As the country becomes more established, one will begin to see a pattern in which mortality declines and fertility remains constant or declines at a slower rate. This will result in a growth in the overall population of the country. This occurred with many of the currently developed countries with the increase in hygiene and nutrition and a decline in infectious diseases. In countries at this point in a demographic transition, the proportion of people in the younger age ranges is higher. Lastly, as countries mature, fertility rates decline to a point that catches up with mortality rates. At this point, the increase in the total population growth of a country slows down.

An epidemiological transition is related to the demographic transition in that it is a change in the pattern of diseases being seen in the overall population. This means there is a shift from mostly communicable diseases to mostly noncommunicable diseases. Early changes to a country’s pattern of disease are based on factors such as hygiene, nutrition, education and socioeconomic level, and advances in public health and medicine.

Demographic Transition- According to Keith Montgomery (n.d.), when we describe both the growth and the decline of a population, we look at the epidemiological and demographic transition data. The image provided shows the stages countries go through in regard to the expansion of populations in terms of birth rate and decline in terms of death rate. The data is examined to help determine the needed interventions and preventable outcomes that may affect the countries.

PART 2
PHE4120-Socioeconomic Status and Race *4pgs* Answer all questions*
*NO plagiarism, NO copy /paste, Reference only the given information*
Read the following article and answer the questions below:

Stepanikova, I., & Oates, G. R. (2017). Research article: Perceived discrimination and privilege in health care: The role of socioeconomic status and race. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52 (Supplement 1), pp. S86–S94. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2016.09.024

In a 4-page Microsoft Word document, provide your answers for the questions given below:

· Provide a brief summary of the article.

· Explain how this article has contributed to your understanding of the role of socioeconomic status and race.

· Discuss why it is important to identify disparities between and within different racial and ethnic groups.

· Explain why those who are disadvantaged correlate with the perceptions of racial privilege. Cite at least two additional articles to support your explanation.

—–Lecture—-

Ethics and Health Promotion
Ethics refers to how individuals conduct themselves in personal and professional interactions (Scott, 1998).

It is important to consider that some current health care ethical principles may be in direct conflict with the cultural values and beliefs of culturally diverse clients (Elliot, 2001; Hyun, 2002; Ludwick & Silva, 2000; Turner, 2003). A number of ethical problems and dilemmas can surface between the practitioner and client, leading to misinformation and feelings of disrespect and distrust and even to malpractice claims against the health practitioner.

Researchers have noted that without a conviction toward culturally proficient practice, the health care professional, or health promoter, may not be engaged in culturally proficient and ethical practice with the multicultural population groups and the clients they serve.

Acknowledging that unconscious racial and ethnic bias continues to exert an influence on clinical decision making and adopting the goal of eliminating the effects of that bias through education. It becomes essential to have a means of monitoring the process of care to be able to identify the disparities that may have bias as a contributing factor.

References:
Elliot, A. C. (2001). Health care ethics: Cultural relativity of autonomy. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 12(4), 326–330.

Hyun, I. (2002). Waiver of informed consent, cultural sensitivity, and the problem of unjust families and traditions. Hastings Center Report, 32(5), 14–22.

Ludwick, R., & Silva, M. C. (2000). Nursing around the world: Cultural values and ethical conflict [Electronic version]. Journal of Issues in Nursing, 5(3). Retrieved from www.nursing world.org/ojin/ethicol/ethics_4.htm

Scott, R. (1998). Professional ethics: A guide for rehabilitation professionals. San Antonio, TX: Mosby.

Turner, L. (2003). Bioethics in a multicultural world: Medicine and morality in pluralistic settings. Health Care Analysis, 11(2), 99–117.

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