Applied Sciences

Running head: INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) 1


Internet of Things (IoT)

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Advancement in Web Technology

Immense progress has been made in technological fields related to web. The web has seen an evolution from Web 1.0 to web 5.0. Web 1.0 was called the web of information and web 5.0 is called the web of Decentralized smart communicator. WWW is a system of interlinked hypertext document accessed via the internet (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). The web browser has enabled easy viewing of web pages that contain text, images and other forms of multimedia. web browsers enable an individual to easily navigate multimedia with the use of hyperlinks. World Wide Web was implemented to enhance effective communication in the whole world.

Web 1.0

Implementation of web 1.0 lasted from 1989 to 2005. It was defined as a web of information connection. According to Tim Berners-Lee, “the web as read-only Web”. Web 1.0 provided very little interaction where consumers could exchange information together and it was not easy to interact with the website (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). The web played a very passive role, Web 1.0 was the first generation of WWW which was basically defined as an information space in which the items of interest referred to as resources are identified by global identifier called as Uniform Resources Identifiers (URLs)‘‘ First generation web was era static pages and content delivery purpose only (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004).. In another world, the early web allowed us to search for information and read it. User contribution to content was very limited with Web 1.0.

Web 1.0 was characterized by reading only content; Web 1.0 would establish an online presence so that information would be available to anyone at any time. Web 1.0 had static web pages and it used basic Hypertext Mark-Up Language. Web 1.0 had several limitations and that is why there was a need for an upgrade to Web 2.0 (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). The limitations of the web were the content of the web could only be understood by humans. it lacked machine compatible content (Venkatesh et al., 2016). The Webmaster was the one in charge of updating web content and also managing it. With the knowledge scientists had they saw a need for making changes to web 1.0 and it leads to 2.0.

Web 2.0

Web 2.0 is the second generation of the web. According to Dale Dougherty (2004), Web 2.0 is a read-write web. the concept was born when O‘Reilly and Media live International was in a brainstorming conference session. The advancement of web 1.0 to web 2.0 allowed the assembling and easy management of large crowds with common interests in social scenarios. According to Tim O‘Reilly “Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform”. More applications that could harness the network effects got better whenever there were more participants.

Web 2.0 has greatly changed the internet; web 2.0 forged its own path n the internet world. Since the inception of web 2.0, there has been a change in how individuals use the internet. it has led to an era of the more collaborative web. Web 2.0 brought change to web developers and web companies (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). Most of our societies function on change and so does the internet. Web 2.0 became part of the daily lives of many individuals, people started living the internet. Web 2.0 was not static web but a social web. it merged individuals with the internet. Web 2.0 increased the usage of people on the internet. Web 2.0 is not only a social web but it also aims at becoming more responsive and interactive. As technology evolved people needed a version that was easier to use and that is why there was the birth of web 3.0.

Web 3.0

The modern evolutionary topics are coming after web 2.0 is web 3.0. It was John Mark, who first coined the Web in 2006. Most individuals commonly refer to web 3.0 as Executable web. The main idea behind Web 3.0 is to ensure a more effective discovery and use across various applications. Data management was greatly improved and also internet accessibility improved with the inception of Web 3.0 (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). Web 3.0 also, ensures creativity and innovation. Web 3.0 ensured greater levels of customer satisfaction more than 2.0 ever offered. Web 3.0 also enabled its users to easily organize collaboration on the social web.

Web 4.0

Web 4.0 was considered by many individuals as the most Ultra-Intelligent Electronic Agent. Interaction between humans and machines in symbiosis was motive behind the symbiotic web. It is as powerful as the human brain. Progress in the development of telecommunication, advancement on nanotechnology in the world and controlled interfaces are using web 4.0. It became easy for machines to read and understand the contents of the Web, and was able to execute commands faster and with their superior quality and high levels of performance, they would load websites faster (Jacobs & Walsh, 2004). r. Web 4.0 will be read-write concurrency web. Web 4.0 being able to read concurrency ensures that there is distribution in governance and transparency in global governance. Concurrency ensures political and social collaboration within communities.

Web 5.0

Web 5.0 is still an underground idea in progress and there is no exact definition of how it would be. Web 5.0 can be considered as Symbiotic web, decentralized it is not possible to have a Personal Server (PS) for any personal data or information stored on the net (Galeazzi et al., 2016). Individuals try to get interconnected via Smart Communicator (SC), like Smartphones, Tablets or Personal Robots is represented as its own avatar inside the SC which will be able to surf alone in the 3D Virtual world of the Symbiotic (Galeazzi et al., 2016). The Symbiotic servers will be able to use a part of “memory and calculation power” of each interconnected SC, in order to calculate the billions and billions needed data to build the 3D world and to feed it’s Artificial Intelligence surf alone.

Internet of Things (IoT)

Internet of things (IoT) is spreading so fast. Many individuals are employing their use in organizations. Technology has enabled network connectivity to everyday objects and devices that previously were not internet-enabled (Atzori, Antonio & Morabito, 2010). Consumer IoT has attracted a lot of attention due to the fact that large companies are using the internet to monitor their assets and maximize their resources for effective manufacturing. The Internet of Things market is growing at an exponential rate (Atzori, Antonio & Morabito, 2010). But the huge number of devices and subscribers accessing the network will have consequences for operators. Operators will need to prioritize traffic.

IoT has been a great transformative in the lives of many individuals. IoT has enabled the use of smart cars and, smart homes (Murthy & Kumar, 2015). Smart cars are very intelligent they provide alerts to individuals and even stop automatically when one comes closer to another vehicle and even cars do self-parking (Atzori, Antonio & Morabito, 2010). IoT goes beyond smart cars and smart homes; there has been the employment of IoT health care services. IoT is used in health care to give emergency notifications of a patient; mostly IoT is used in pacemakers (Murthy & Kumar, 2015). The use of IoT in health care has lead to many lives being saved due to early detection of birth defects.

The use of IoT does not stop at health care services; it is being employed in agriculture and manufacturing sector. Before the use of IoT in agriculture, agricultural practices were very unprofitable, but IoT has to lead to innovation of farming techniques (Atzori, Antonio & Morabito, 2010). Data relating to environmental conditions can easily be collected through the help of IoT, wireless sensors have been integrated with mobile applications through cloud platforms. the growth in the number of connected devices to the internet is what has contributed to the growth of data explosion (Murthy & Kumar, 2015). The IoT is here to benefit the daily lives of individuals, but there are threats too associated with advancement in IoT. There is the threat of cyber attacks and the lack of better ways of protecting the privacy of individuals.


Atzori, L., Antonio Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The Internet of things: A survey. Computer Networks, 54(2). 787–2,805

Galeazzi, F., Callieri, M., Dellepiane, M., Charno, M., Richards, J., & Scopigno, R. (2016). Web-based visualization for 3D data in archaeology: the ADS 3D viewer. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 9, 1-11.

Jacobs, I., & Walsh, N. (eds). (2004). The architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One. Retrieved from

Murthy, D. N., & Kumar, B. V. (2015). Internet of things (IoT): is IoT a disruptive technology or a disruptive business model?. Indian Journal of Marketing, 45(8), 18-27.

Venkatesh, V., Rabah, J., Fusaro, M., Couture, A., Varela, W., & Alexander, K. (2016). Factors impacting university instructors’ and students’ perceptions of course effectiveness and technology integration in the age of web 2.0. McGill Journal of Education/Revue des sciences de l’éducation de McGill, 51(1), 533-561.

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