Applied Sciences

CRM Training and Simulation Programs

ASCI 516

Module 7 Presentation

CRM Training Goals

Increased safety

Increased effectiveness

Increase efficiency of operations

Axioms Regarding Effective CRM Implementation

To be accepted, CRM concepts must be accorded the same status as adherence to technical standards that are continually measured and reinforced

If the concepts of CRM cannot be reinforced, there is no point in committing resources to the training. CRM will not be treated with the same seriousness as technical issues

Instructors and evaluators must be trained and skilled in assessment and reinforcement of human factors

Company Policies

Laws, Rules

Security/Hazardous Materials

Air Traffic Control


Aircraft Operations



Flight Maneuvers


System Operation


Interpretation of Hazards

System Control

Aircraft Control













Concern for Operations

Interpersonal climate

Group climate

Automation Management

Briefings / Debriefings


Crew Self-Critique

Conflict Resolution






Workload Distribution

Distraction Avoidance














Review of Differences


2. Crew

3. Type of Aircraft

4. Equipment

5. Financial Resources

6. Developers of Course

7. Culture

Review of Principles Fundamental to a CRM Program

Interpersonal skills.

Effective Team coordination.

Crew members Attitudes & Behaviors.

Involves the Entire flight crew.

Active participation of all crew members.

Buy-in from the entire organization structure.

Tailored to the flight program and integrated into the Total training curriculum.

CRM Training Components

Initial Indoctrination/Awareness

Classroom presentations focus on Communications, Decision making, Interpersonal relations, Crew coordination, Leadership, SOPs, & others

Recurrent Practice and Feedback

LOFT – Line orientated flight training

Continuing Reinforcement

Embedded into entire organization culture


Research programs and airline operational experience suggest the greatest benefits are achieved by adhering to the following practices:

Assess the status of the organization before implementation

How widely are CRM concepts understood and practiced?

Survey crewmembers, management, training and standards personnel

Observe crews in line operations

Analysis of incident / accident reports


Get commitment from all management, especially senior managers

Commitment for resources

Flight ops and training manuals should include CRM concepts by providing crews with necessary policy and procedures guidance

Foster and support open communications (e.g. appropriate questioning, no reprisals, etc.)


Customize training to reflect the nature and needs of the organization

Establish priorities for topics to be covered

Define scope of the program and an implementation plan

Special training for check airmen, supervisors and instructors prior to training crewmembers and support personnel


Communicate nature and scope of program before startup

To prevent misunderstandings about focus of CRM training and implementation, provide crews, managers, and training and standards personnel with a preview of what CRM training will involve together with plans for initial and continuing training


Institute Quality Control procedures

Monitor delivery of training and determine areas where training can be strengthened

Use course feedback surveys to collect systematic feedback from participants in the training

Content of the Phases of CRM Training

Indoctrination/awareness training consists of classroom training and focuses areas such as:



Interpersonal relations

Crew coordination


Initial Indoctrination/Awareness

Concepts are developed, defines and related to the safety of line operations

This component also provides a common conceptual framework and a common vocabulary for identifying flight operations and crew coordination problems

Include as many support personnel as possible (e.g. flight attendants, maintenance, flight dispatchers, managers, etc.)

Initial Indoctrination/Awareness

Can be accomplished by a combination of training methods such as:



Discussion groups

Case studies

Role-playing exercises


Video-taped examples of good/poor team behavior

Initial Indoctrination/Awareness

Requires the development of a curriculum that addresses CRM skills that have been demonstrated to influence crew performance

Should define concepts involved and relate them directly to operational issues that crews encounter


Survey data collected prior to implementation can be useful in this area

Survey for current attitudes and perceptions

Pre-test knowledge of CRM

Also recommended:

End of Course Exam

Post test (performance based)

Initial Indoctrination/Awareness

Recognize that classroom instruction alone does not fundamentally change crewmember attitudes over the long term

It is only a necessary first step (awareness) that must be followed-up and reinforced

Phase II: Recurrent Practice and Feedback

Include as a part of recurrent training requirements (e.g. Part 121/135 recurrent training)

Classroom training and briefing room refresher training

Follow-up with LOFT and video taped feedback

Use full crews that train in their normal roles and positions

Both instructor and self-critique are important

LOFT Simulations

Full mission, high fidelity sim’s

Scenario designed to present situations requiring crew coordination efforts

Emphasis on training, not checking, in a non-punitive setting

To protect anonymity, videotapes should be erased after each session

Phase III: Continuing Reinforcement

One-time exposures to classroom, role-playing and LOFT with feedback is not sufficient

Attitudes/norms may have developed over a period of many years

It is unrealistic to expect a short training program to reverse years of habits

CRM must be embedded in every stage of training, and reinforced daily in the operational environment

Goal should be to become an inseparable part of the organization’s culture

Curriculum Topics

Communications topics should include both internal and external influences on interpersonal communications



Crew self-critique (decisions and actions)

Conflict resolution

Communications and decision-making

Team Building and Maintenance


Interpersonal relationships/group climate

Workload management and situational awareness


Workload distribution/distraction avoidance

Individual factors/stress reduction

Specialized Training

Upgrading to captain

New hire orientation

Check airmen

CRM instructors/facilitators


CRM Training Focus

Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs)

Mental attitudes

Motives related to cognitive processes

Interpersonal relationships that influence crew coordination

Management of resources in flight ops


Communication processes and decisions





Conflict resolution

Operational problem-solving & decision making


Workload management and situational awareness

Extent to which crewmembers maintain awareness of ops environment

Anticipate contingencies

Plan and allocate activities to manage stress and workload

Computer Based Instruction

Is cost effective

Does not require large number of instructors

Allows trainee to work at own pace

Specialized training modules can be on hand for refresher when needed

Evaluation Without Jeopardy

Balance must be struck between the organization’s evaluation needs and those of crewmember and organizational privacy

Data shared must be de-identified (off-site archives & summary-level collection) to avoid finding their way into accident investigations and courtrooms

Failure to de-identify puts orgs/individuals in jeopardy

Modes of Assessment

Evaluation of outcomes

Focuses on determining extent to which training programs were successful in achieve results (evidenced by successes and failures)

Evaluation of training program outcomes

Effects of training on CRM KSA’s targeted by the curriculum to determine which KSA’s are transferred to line ops and retained between recurrent training periods

Training Program Outcomes

Concerned with modifying/enhancing existing training programs through recommendations based on observations

Evaluates curriculum materials

Instructional behaviors as opposed to training program outcomes

Assessment of the characteristics of students, instructors, and their organizations before training may moderate effects of training program elements on training outcomes

Assessment Criteria

Questionnaire responses are quantified, enabling estimation of their

Reliability (Are results consistent over time?)

Validity (Does the instrument measure what it is supposed to measure?)

Measures of Training Outcomes



Change in mental attitudes among individual students

Measures of crew behavior in LOFT and line operations

(see page 184 for LOFT evaluator survey)

Consider Individual & Organizational Characteristics

Individuals (students and instructors)

Pre-training attitudes


Learning preferences


Top management commitment to CRM training is a key factor to success

Endorsement by pilot organizations

Endorsement by unions

Mergers effecting culture (when two cultures merge, usually one of them loses their identity)



Other Factors to Consider

Information systems

Reward systems

Cultural climate – CMAQ attitude scales (p. 187)

Educational systems (page 190)

Advanced Crew Resource Management (ACRM) Training

Key Elements:

Development of CRM procedures

Training instructors and evaluators

Training fleet crews

Assessment of crew based performance based on the airline’s operational environment

Southwest Airlines

Examples of Content in SWA’s Crew Resource Management Training Program


Captain Upgrade Leadership


Why Is This Needed?

Avoiding ASAP and NASA reports

Skills to not get the “Call this number when you land” from the FAA

Avoiding, Trapping and Managing Error

Fewer letters in your file is good

Monitoring and Challenging Skills

Most Importantly…Leadership!



Who makes the decisions in the cockpit?

Who is accountable?

Who is in charge?


Profile of Effective vs. Non-Effective Captains

Effective Ineffective
Communicates/Listens Distant
Patience/Tact Ego
Trust In Crew Micro Manages
Enables Crew Angry
Positive Attitude Distrust
Mentor/Teacher Disregards Authority
Buys Cheap

What Pushes Us to the Right?










When you feel it happening, take a step back and don’t go to the right side.


Pilot Responsibilities

Disciplined and Professional Flying Skills

Professionalism vs. Foolish Pride

Standardization and Coordination

“On-Scene” Leader

Creative in Servicing Customers


Threat and Error Management

We Know that Human Error is inevitable

Limited memory and processing capability

Limits imposed on us by



Psychological Factors

Poor Crew Teamwork / Cultural Influences


Types of Flight Crew Error

Intentional Non-Compliance

Performing a checklist from memory


Wrong altitude dialed into the MCP


Miscommunication with ATC


Flight Crew Error (Continued)


Lack of knowledge of automation


Unnecessary navigation through adverse weather


Some Threats



Unfamiliar Airports







Threat and Error Countermeasures

CRM Skills

Pilots are the Final Filter







Most Common Errors


Tactile Decisions

Failure to Monitor and Challenge


How do we establish an Environment for Effective Monitoring and Challenging?




Set the tone for the entire trip

Key element for safety

Necessary for all crew members



“Crewmembers speak up, and state their information with appropriate persistence until there is a clear resolution.”


Captain’s Authority

FAR 91.3(a)

Flight Operations Manual

FAR 121.533


Wrapping Up

Alertness and Vigilance

Procedural Compliance


Lowest Common Denominator is…Leadership!


Captain Leadership


Course Introduction

Discussion about the abnormal experiences the new Captains had over the past 6 months


Recap on Effectiveness

Preflight Briefings


Build the Crew vs. Tearing them down

Not Nitpicky

Knows and Does his/her job

Leading by Example

We Gave you the Leadership Role….DO IT!


Louisville 5th Grade Class


Open Minded

Absorb New Ideas

Encouraging but doesn’t lie

If you say that you’ll do something…do it.

Not Mean

Listens to People



Since the Federal Aviation Regulations and the Flight Operations Manual gives the Captain full authority, does that make him/her a leader?

Absolutely Not


Authority is power which is delegated or assigned

Leadership is “the process of influencing the behavior of other people toward group goals in a way that fully respects their freedom.”


An Effective Leader

Maintains “Command Authority”

Maintains a Positive Attitude

Sets the Tone and Defines Expectations

Mentors, Trains and Takes Care of the Crew

Gets out in front; Manages and Directs Crew


Q & A

Questions posed from the Captains to lead members of:

Flight Operations Training



Ground Operations



Respectful Assertion

Communicate to Correct – Correct with Respect

Use Clear, Concise, Timely and Certain verbiage


Monitor Crew Situational Awareness

Pilot and Flight Attendants workloads are not concurrent


Risk Assessment

Identify Risks

Asses the Risk (low, medium, high)

Manage the Risk



Why do Crews Make Unnecessary Risks?


Get-There-It is

72% of Errors from an omission in the FOM

Speed/Altitude Calls

Omission of a preflight briefing, etc.


Trauma Expense?

Accident Rescue/Salvage

Family Assistance


Loss of Hull & its use

Increased Staffing

External Safety Audits

Reduced Bookings/loads/yields

Lower Stock Value

Lower Image/financial rating/growth

Management Distracted

Current “Trauma” Expense – $1-1.5 Billion


Think About Your Decisions

Does anyone want to Follow you?

Does anyone want to Emulate you?

“LEADERS” are always learning!


Extending Human Factors Training to Flight Attendants


FAA now requires Flight Attendants to undergo CRM training

Most airlines re-hash pilot CRM course, or focus on only pilot-F/A interactions

Few high quality diagnostic tools

Optimize F/A CRM Training

To build maximally effective training, it must be tailored to the:

specific duties and responsibilities of the F/A’s

organizational and national culture

leadership and authority structures

interactions between F/A’s and all groups with whom they have contact

types of safety-related errors F/A’s commit

Flight Attendant Safety Attitudes Questionnaire

Organizational climate

Senior and base management evaluations

Employee group teamwork perceptions

Perceptions of leadership in the cabin

Leadership styles appropriate and encountered

Crew planning and scheduling

Flight attendant stressors

Interactions with the cockpit

Safety perceptions


Competence in emergency procedure

First Survey Results

F/A’s expect a much more directive style of leadership from the Captain than FO’s

Joint training based on the cockpit model may be too “consultative” for F/A’s

Captains who expect the same type of interaction from FO’s and F/A’s work under the wrong model

But appropriate leadership style within the cabin is more consultative (and also less well defined)

First Look

Domestic and International Data

Other Professions Using CRM Related Training Methods

Domains Utilizing Human Factors and Error Management Training

Non-Aviation Domains That Use HF and Error Management Training

Medicine (e.g. ER & OR teams)

Merchant Marines

Production Teams

Nuclear Reactor Teams

Review – FAA Human Factors “CRM Applications Beyond Aviation” Team Performance Module.

Line Operational Simulation

LOS is widely used to provide opportunities for crews to practice CRM concepts in realistic and challenging simulated flight situations.

LOS includes LOFT, Line Operational Evaluation (LOE), and Special Purpose Operational Training (SPOT).

LOFT is the original “non-jeopardy” form of simulation training in which crews are not graded on their performance. Like LOFT, SPOT is used for training rather than evaluative purposes.

Design of LOFT & SPOT

LOFT and SPOT simulation events should reflect the specific needs and requirements of the flight operation, considering

Consequence of error

Relative difficulty

Frequency of occurrence in specific operations


Both LOFT and LOE are full-mission simulations that include all phases of flight, whereas SPOT may be full-mission or only a segment of a flight tailored to focus on a particular training point.

Line Operational Evalution (LOE) air crews are graded, which is required in those airlines that participate in the FAA’s Advanced Qualification Program (AQP)

AQP and Line Operational Evaluations (LOE)

AQP is has enabled crews to actually able to practice CRM, because poor CRM can cause crews to fail a LOE (Birnbach & Longridge, 1993; FAA, 1991).

In order for LOE programs to be effective and accepted, pilots must believe they are being graded on performance dimensions they understand and by criteria that seem appropriate and achievable.

The ability of crews to analyze and evaluate their own performance in LOFT may predict their acceptance of LOE grading.

CRM Events in Simulations

The use of LOS in a curriculum was originally proposed as a means of ensuring that CRM issues are adequately addressed for training and evaluation purposes

For this reason, many scenarios are designed around a CRM theme

The difficulty in LOS design arises in identifying events and event sets that address this theme

CRM in Simulations (cont.)

In many cases the theme used is one of the CRM categories, for example, situational awareness

The CRM concept of SA must then be translated into flight situation characteristics or activities

The designer can then determine which types of constraints to use (weather, terrain, fuel status, etc.)

Through identification of the range of flight activities required in the scenario, the range of CRM and technical activities that should be trained and/or evaluated can then be determined

Considerations in Preparing LOFT Simulations

Generation of workload

Creative problem solving

Scenario dominated approach

Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)

Instructors should facilitate self-discovery and self-critique by the crew rather than lecture on what they did right and wrong

Self discovery by the crew is believed to provide deeper learning and better retention.

Crews are more likely to enhance their performance of CRM in line operations if they develop their ability to analyze flight operations in terms of CRM and debrief themselves after line flights.


How much crews learn in LOFT and take back to the line depends on the effectiveness of the debriefing that follows the LOFT

The simulation itself is a busy, intense experience, and thoughtful discussion afterward is necessary for the crew to sort out and interpret what happened and why.

Instructor Role

Instructors are expected to lead debriefings in a way that encourages crew members to analyze their LOFT performance for themselves.

Rather than lecturing to the crew on what they did right and wrong, the instructor is expected to facilitate self-discovery and self-critique by the crew


One purpose of the introduction is to let the crew know that participation and self-evaluation are expected of them, and why it is important.

Makes clear that his role is guide/facilitator and that crew should do most of the talking

Clearly conveys that crew should take an active role, initiating discussion rather than just responding to him

Clearly conveys that he wants crew to dig deep, critically analyzing the LOFT and their performance

Gives a persuasive rationale for the crew to participate actively and make their own analysis

Instructor Introduction

Specifically and thoroughly explains that his role is guide/facilitator and that crew should do most of the talking and lead the discussion

Sets strong expectations for proactive crew participation, explicitly stating they should initiate discussion rather than just responding to IP questions

Explicitly and emphatically states that crew should dig deep, critically analyzing the LOFT and their performance

Gives a persuasive rationale for the crew to participate actively and make their own analysis and makes a strong case for why it is important to do it this way.


The purpose of asking questions is to get the crew to participate, focus the discussion on important topics, and enlist the crew in discussing the topics in depth.

Asks an appropriate number of questions to get crew talking & lead them to issues

Avoids answering for the crew when they do not respond immediately or correctly and uses a pattern of questioning that keeps the focus on the crew

Uses probing and follow-up questions to get crew to analyze in depth and to go beyond yes/no and brief factual answers

Uses questioning techniques to encourage interaction and sharing of perspectives among crew members


Asks questions as appropriate to get crew talking & lead them to issues

rewords questions or otherwise avoids answering for the crew when they do not respond immediately or correctly, and consistently uses a pattern of questioning that keeps the focus on the crew

uses probing and follow-up questions as a tool to evoke in-depth discussion and optimize crew self-discovery, while forcing crew to go beyond yes/no and brief factual answers

uses questioning techniques to encourage substantial interaction and sharing of perspectives among crew members


Encouragement refers to the degree to which the instructor encourages and enables the crew to actively and deeply participate in the debriefing.

Conveys sense of interest in crew views and works to get them to do most of the talking

Encourages continued discussion through active listening, strategic pauses, avoiding disruptive interruptions, and/or following up on crew-initiated topics

Encourages all members to participate fully, drawing out quiet members if necessary

Refrains from giving long soliloquies or giving his own analysis before crew has fully analyzed


Communicates an interest in crew views and actively strives to get them to do most of the talking and lead their own discussion.

Uses active listening and pauses, avoids interrupting, and follows up on crew topics.

Encourages all members to participate and draws out quiet members as necessary.

Refrains from lecturing and giving own analysis before crew.

The goal of the debriefing session is to get the crew to evaluate and analyze their own CRM performance so they will learn more deeply and can gain practice in debriefing themselves, a skill they can then begin to use on the line.

Encourages crew to analyze along CRM dimensions the situation that confronted them, what they did to manage the situation, and why they did it

Encourages crew to evaluate their performance and/or ways they might improve

Encourages crew to explore CRM issues and how they specifically affect LOFT performance and line operations

Encourages crew to analyze issues, factors, and outcomes in depth, going beyond simply describing what happened and what they did


Encourages and pushes crew to analyze along CRM dimensions the situation that confronted them, what they did to manage the situation, and why they did it.

Encourages and pushes crew to evaluate their performance and/or ways they might improve.

Encourages crew to explore CRM issues and how they specifically affect LOFT performance and line operations.

Encourages crew to analyze issues, factors, and outcomes in depth, going beyond simply describing what happened and what they did.


One stated purpose of showing videotaped segments of the LOFT is to enable the crew members to see how they performed from an objective viewpoint so they can better evaluate their performance. More realistically, perhaps, the video reminds the crew of the situation, aiding their memory and providing a focus for debriefings and further discussion.


Uses video equipment efficiently: is able to find desired segment without wasting time and pauses the video if substantial talk begins while playing

Consistently discusses video segments, using them as a springboard for discussion of specific topics

Has a point to make and uses the video to make that point.


Shows an appropriate number of videos of appropriate duration to illustrate/introduce topics.

Uses video equipment efficiently: is able to find desired segment without wasting time and pauses the video if talk begins while playing.

Evokes and consistently pursues thorough crew discussion of each video segment or topic.

Has a point to make and uses the video to make that point.

Crew Analysis and Evaluation

Crew analysis and evaluation refers to the depth to which the crew members analyze the LOFT situation and evaluate their performance.

Analyze along CRM dimensions the situation that confronted them, what they did to manage the situation, and why they did it

Evaluate their performance and ways they might improve

Explore CRM issues and how they affect LOFT performance and line operations

Analyze issues, factors, and outcomes in depth, going beyond simply describing what happened and what they did


Analyze along CRM dimensions the situation that confronted them, what they did to manage the situation, and why they did it.

Evaluate their performance and ways they might improve.

Explore CRM issues and how they affect LOFT performance and line operations.

Analyze issues, factors, and outcomes in depth, going beyond simply describing what happened and what they did.

Depth of Crew Activity

Activity refers to how actively, versus passively, and deeply the crew participates in and initiates discussion.

Go beyond minimal responses to IP questions

Participate deeply and thoughtfully

Initiate dialogue rather than just responding to questions, and/or interact with each other rather than only with the IP

Behave in a predominantly proactive rather than reactive manner, being actively involved rather than just passing through the training


Should go substantially beyond minimal responses to questions.

participate deeply and thoughtfully.

initiate dialogue and pursue issues to completion rather than just responding to questions, and consistently interact with each other rather than only with the IP.

proactive rather than reactive manner, being actively involved rather than just passing through the training.

Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA)

Utilizes trained observers riding in cockpit jump seats to evaluate several aspects of crew performance

At the core of the LOSA process is a model of threat management and error management, which provides a framework for collection of data

In-flight observers record the various threats encountered by aircrew, the types of errors committed, and most importantly, they record how flight crews manage these situations to maintain safety


Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA)

Observers also collect data on CRM performance and conduct a structured interview to ask pilots for their suggestions to improve safety

These combined data sources provide the airline conducting the LOSA with a diagnostic snapshot of safety strengths and weaknesses in normal flight operations


Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA)

A large LOSA data set is maintained by the University of Texas Human Factors Research Project (over 1700 flights)

This allows study of crew performance issues across a number of different airlines with the commercial airline industry


Flight crew performance and procedural drift

Baseline performance



Operational performance

Reasons for drift:


Following the “norm”

Intentional non-compliance

Pgs. 295-296

F/A Views of Captains

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