Applied Sciences



This paper analyzes the possibility of the existence of an Earth-sized exoplanet that

orbits its star within the specific habitable zone, which may point to evidence for

support of life due to the existence of earth-like conditions. This research seeks to

establish if there exist other Earth-like planets besides earth, that prove similar life-

supporting factors are present. Such knowledge can enlighten the scientific

community on possibilities of interstellar travel as well as possibilities of other life

forms and structures apart from that on Earth, creating stepping stones and new

avenues for space colonization (NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2020). Which can

facilitate the overall achievement of long term environmental sustainability on Earth,

as humans can utilize space as a resource?

Scientific resources

During this research, I will utilize primary resources such as dissertations, lab reports,

and journal articles because such sources provide authentic information. Secondary

resources that shall be used here will include article reviews and books that will

further clarify information from primary sources (University at Albany, n.d.).

Also, tertiary resources will be important for the ultimate organization and retrieval of

both primary and secondary information that would facilitate this research. Such

resources will include abstracts or summaries of primary and secondary resources,

databases, and indices which will provide actual citations and identify documents

with relevant information on authors, books, and article titles as well as publisher

information (Woodley, 2020).


Research question

Is it possible for this Earth-sized habitable-zoned planet to be the beginning of space



The main audiences targeted by this research are the scientific community as well as

the general public.

Because the scientific community considers sustainability important, there will be

expert analysis and opinions on the research issue. If action is not taken regarding

sustainability, humans face risks to food and water security, biodiversity among other

risks on our limited resources (Vessuri, 2016).

Also, the public should be informed because researchers have understood the role that

the general public audience plays toward overall progress in addressing our issues.

When a public audience is well informed, governments and authorities, specializing in

space study and exploration can be driven toward action by funding, sponsoring, and

allocating further studies and resources aimed at investigating earthlike planets. This

way, everyone will have a better picture of our current environment sustainability

practices concerning chances for interstellar travel and space colonization (Brownell,

Price, & Steinman, 2013).



According to The American Astronomical Society, Kepler-1649 c has been identified

as a low-mass planet similar to earth, which revolves around the star Kepler-1649.

This planet gets from its star, an incident flux similar to Earth’s, and has the

equilibrium temperature of a circumstellar habitable zone making it closely similar to

Earth. Initially, it was classified by the Keppler pipeline as false positive, but upon

inspection of Keppler’s false positives, it was reported as a possible Earth-sized

habitable-zoned planet (The American Astronomical Society, 2020).

Kepler-1649c is approximately 300 light-years away from Earth, and boasts a similar

size to Earth, with almost similar temperature and comparable light exposure like

Earths. This discovery has sparked hope for a second Earth and the possibility of

other forms of life in our galaxy (NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2020).

Why message can be tailored to the public scientific community

Currently, there is a growing concern on huger, terrorism, diseases, environmental

pollution, global warming, weather changes, and general scarcity of resources and

clean water. As we understand, space colonization can offer solutions to such

problems in terms of technology and sociologically. Solutions from space exploration

and colonization especially for earthlike planets will be beneficial to the majority, the

world as a whole (Siegfried, 2003).

This means that we can develop our message to ensure that the scientific community

can understand the need for space exploration toward possible solutions to current

global issues indicated and overpopulation concerns on Earth.


Due to the nature of this research, most individuals in our scientific community will

be able to understand terminologies used, research methodologies, and sources of

relevant data as collected and analyzed leading to an effective understanding of the


In this case, the issue of sustainability is the core, and the overall global concern for

environmental sustainability is growing. Worsening conditions pose threats to

humanity and general security is at threat. The shift in focus on renewable energy,

climate management, water, and biodiversity protection is slowly enabling us to

mitigate threats from traditional practices that affect sustainability (Sullivan, 2008).

Such measures should be coupled with alternatives such as space exploration and

colonization of Earth-sized habitable-zoned planet. This way, we can achieve long

term sustainability in a fast, effective manner.

The following sustainability principles guide the development of this research:

Sustainable development: The theory of sustainable development insinuates the need

for undertaking development initiatives while considering sustainability, so we can

meet current needs without compromising the abilities for future generations

(Tearfund, 2009).


Feasible ways organizations can achieve this is by undertaking initiatives for

alternative resources especially through space exploration and initiatives seeking to

utilize celestial resources like ones potentially on Kepler-1649c.

Currently, humans have established that there are vast amounts of minerals in space

that can be utilized commercially through observations, remote sensing, and space

probes making space and celestial bodies a utility for sustainable development

(Sachdeva, 2018).

Understanding water resources: Since life on earth needs water, we should consider

future implications from the misuse of water and its pollution. As the population

grows, water will be more scarce, which may lead to disputes over control of such

important resources (Tearfund, 2009). Since Kepler-1649c, an earth-like planet may

have water. Future habitation of this planet by humans may minimize the long term

impact on our earth’s water resources.

Time and space inter-dependencies: organizations must understand how our universe

is interconnected and that resources we use can affect places far away while activities

in faraway places can affect us. Therefore, sustainability requires developing

sustainability standards globally (Sullivan, 2008). If Earth-sized habitable-zoned

planets like Kepler-1649c support life, activities there can be used to develop our

earth and assist in overall sustainability.

Triple-bottom line: Emphasizes on balanced economic, environmental, and social

considerations. As we look toward meeting our financial needs, we must equally


improve our environment and develop our social well-being (Sullivan, 2008).

Kepler-1649c can create an avenue for income generation for firms, corporations, and

other institutions while promoting Earth’s environmental conservation efforts and if

by a chance, life exists in Kepler-1649c, humans will have new relations with

extraterrestrial life forms bringing a need for an inter galactical government.

Equity: Sustainability requires equitable allocation and distribution of resources,

opportunities, life quality, and wealth across countries currently and in the future. It is

therefore our responsibility to ourselves, others, and future generations so that our

descendants can access both resources and utilities for better life quality (Sullivan,

2008). Space exploration and colonization provides good grounds for equality since

current resources, wealth, and opportunities are not distributed equally


The research paper asked the question whether it is possible for Earth-sized habitable-

zoned planet can lead to the beginning of space colonization. From the research

question we identified a hypothesis, that is, space colonization is possible on Earth-

sized habitable-zoned planets. Testing the hypothesis may begin by testing whether

the planet can support life by checking factors such as energy sources and its


atmosphere. Understanding whether these habitable-zoned planets support life or not

will aid in determining whether they can be explored further and allow colonization.

Though it may difficult to ascertain that these Earth-sized habitable-zoned planets

support life and can be colonized, scientists should measure the atmosphere of these

planets so that they can explore them further to determine their sustainability of

human life. According to NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2020), there are scientists

currently trying to find the mass of such planet’s so that they can determine whether

they are rocky like Earth. This knowledge would add more insight to scientists on

whether or not they can sustain life. Space exploration of these Earth-sized habitable-

zoned planets would shed more light on this too. Therefore, having this knowledge

would help future researchers on whether these Earth-sized habitable-zoned planets

are ready for space colonization.


Brownell, S., Price, J. & Steinman, L. (2013). Science Communication to the General

Public: Why We Need to Teach Undergraduate and Graduate Students this Skill as


Part of Their Formal Scientific Training. Retrieved from: https://

NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (2020, April 16). Earth-size, habitable-zone planet

found hidden in early NASA Kepler data: While the star it orbits is much smaller than

our Sun, it gets about 75 percent of the sunlight Earth does. ScienceDaily. Retrieved

May 31, 2020, from

Sachdeva, G. (2018). Commercial Mining of Celestial Resources: Case Study of U.S.

Space Laws. Retrieved from:


Siegfried, W. H. (2003). Space technology and applications 2003:

Conf.on Thermophysics in Microgravity; Commercial/Civil Next Generation Space

Transportation; Human Space Exploration. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 654,

pp. 1270-1278 (2003). Retrieved from:


Sullivan, W. (2008). What are the guiding principles of ‘environmental sustainability’?

Retrieved from:

Tearfund, (2009). Environmental sustainabilityResponding to changes in the

environment and climate.


The American Astronomical Society, (2020). A Habitable-zone Earth-sized Planet

Rescued from False Positive Status. Retrieved from:



University at Albany, (n.d.). Primary and Secondary Sources for Science. Retrieved


Vessuri, H. (2016). Science for Sustainable Development (Agenda 2030). Retrieved



Woodley, M. (2020). Three Types of Resources. Retrieved from: https://

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