1Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
This paper analyzes the possibility of the existence of an Earth-sized exoplanet that
orbits its star within the specific habitable zone, which may point to evidence for
support of life due to the existence of earth-like conditions. This research seeks to
establish if there exist other Earth-like planets besides earth, that prove similar life-
supporting factors are present. Such knowledge can enlighten the scientific
community on possibilities of interstellar travel as well as possibilities of other life
forms and structures apart from that on Earth, creating stepping stones and new
avenues for space colonization (NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2020). Which can
facilitate the overall achievement of long term environmental sustainability on Earth,
as humans can utilize space as a resource?
During this research, I will utilize primary resources such as dissertations, lab reports,
and journal articles because such sources provide authentic information. Secondary
resources that shall be used here will include article reviews and books that will
further clarify information from primary sources (University at Albany, n.d.).
Also, tertiary resources will be important for the ultimate organization and retrieval of
both primary and secondary information that would facilitate this research. Such
resources will include abstracts or summaries of primary and secondary resources,
databases, and indices which will provide actual citations and identify documents
with relevant information on authors, books, and article titles as well as publisher
information (Woodley, 2020).
2Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
Is it possible for this Earth-sized habitable-zoned planet to be the beginning of space
The main audiences targeted by this research are the scientific community as well as
the general public.
Because the scientific community considers sustainability important, there will be
expert analysis and opinions on the research issue. If action is not taken regarding
sustainability, humans face risks to food and water security, biodiversity among other
risks on our limited resources (Vessuri, 2016).
Also, the public should be informed because researchers have understood the role that
the general public audience plays toward overall progress in addressing our issues.
When a public audience is well informed, governments and authorities, specializing in
space study and exploration can be driven toward action by funding, sponsoring, and
allocating further studies and resources aimed at investigating earthlike planets. This
way, everyone will have a better picture of our current environment sustainability
practices concerning chances for interstellar travel and space colonization (Brownell,
Price, & Steinman, 2013).
3Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
According to The American Astronomical Society, Kepler-1649 c has been identified
as a low-mass planet similar to earth, which revolves around the star Kepler-1649.
This planet gets from its star, an incident flux similar to Earth’s, and has the
equilibrium temperature of a circumstellar habitable zone making it closely similar to
Earth. Initially, it was classified by the Keppler pipeline as false positive, but upon
inspection of Keppler’s false positives, it was reported as a possible Earth-sized
habitable-zoned planet (The American Astronomical Society, 2020).
Kepler-1649c is approximately 300 light-years away from Earth, and boasts a similar
size to Earth, with almost similar temperature and comparable light exposure like
Earths. This discovery has sparked hope for a second Earth and the possibility of
other forms of life in our galaxy (NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2020).
Why message can be tailored to the public scientific community
Currently, there is a growing concern on huger, terrorism, diseases, environmental
pollution, global warming, weather changes, and general scarcity of resources and
clean water. As we understand, space colonization can offer solutions to such
problems in terms of technology and sociologically. Solutions from space exploration
and colonization especially for earthlike planets will be beneficial to the majority, the
world as a whole (Siegfried, 2003).
This means that we can develop our message to ensure that the scientific community
can understand the need for space exploration toward possible solutions to current
global issues indicated and overpopulation concerns on Earth.
4Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
Due to the nature of this research, most individuals in our scientific community will
be able to understand terminologies used, research methodologies, and sources of
relevant data as collected and analyzed leading to an effective understanding of the
In this case, the issue of sustainability is the core, and the overall global concern for
environmental sustainability is growing. Worsening conditions pose threats to
humanity and general security is at threat. The shift in focus on renewable energy,
climate management, water, and biodiversity protection is slowly enabling us to
mitigate threats from traditional practices that affect sustainability (Sullivan, 2008).
Such measures should be coupled with alternatives such as space exploration and
colonization of Earth-sized habitable-zoned planet. This way, we can achieve long
term sustainability in a fast, effective manner.
The following sustainability principles guide the development of this research:
Sustainable development: The theory of sustainable development insinuates the need
for undertaking development initiatives while considering sustainability, so we can
meet current needs without compromising the abilities for future generations
5Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
Feasible ways organizations can achieve this is by undertaking initiatives for
alternative resources especially through space exploration and initiatives seeking to
utilize celestial resources like ones potentially on Kepler-1649c.
Currently, humans have established that there are vast amounts of minerals in space
that can be utilized commercially through observations, remote sensing, and space
probes making space and celestial bodies a utility for sustainable development
Understanding water resources: Since life on earth needs water, we should consider
future implications from the misuse of water and its pollution. As the population
grows, water will be more scarce, which may lead to disputes over control of such
important resources (Tearfund, 2009). Since Kepler-1649c, an earth-like planet may
have water. Future habitation of this planet by humans may minimize the long term
impact on our earth’s water resources.
Time and space inter-dependencies: organizations must understand how our universe
is interconnected and that resources we use can affect places far away while activities
in faraway places can affect us. Therefore, sustainability requires developing
sustainability standards globally (Sullivan, 2008). If Earth-sized habitable-zoned
planets like Kepler-1649c support life, activities there can be used to develop our
earth and assist in overall sustainability.
Triple-bottom line: Emphasizes on balanced economic, environmental, and social
considerations. As we look toward meeting our financial needs, we must equally
6Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
improve our environment and develop our social well-being (Sullivan, 2008).
Kepler-1649c can create an avenue for income generation for firms, corporations, and
other institutions while promoting Earth’s environmental conservation efforts and if
by a chance, life exists in Kepler-1649c, humans will have new relations with
extraterrestrial life forms bringing a need for an inter galactical government.
Equity: Sustainability requires equitable allocation and distribution of resources,
opportunities, life quality, and wealth across countries currently and in the future. It is
therefore our responsibility to ourselves, others, and future generations so that our
descendants can access both resources and utilities for better life quality (Sullivan,
2008). Space exploration and colonization provides good grounds for equality since
current resources, wealth, and opportunities are not distributed equally
The research paper asked the question whether it is possible for Earth-sized habitable-
zoned planet can lead to the beginning of space colonization. From the research
question we identified a hypothesis, that is, space colonization is possible on Earth-
sized habitable-zoned planets. Testing the hypothesis may begin by testing whether
the planet can support life by checking factors such as energy sources and its
7Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
atmosphere. Understanding whether these habitable-zoned planets support life or not
will aid in determining whether they can be explored further and allow colonization.
Though it may difficult to ascertain that these Earth-sized habitable-zoned planets
support life and can be colonized, scientists should measure the atmosphere of these
planets so that they can explore them further to determine their sustainability of
human life. According to NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2020), there are scientists
currently trying to find the mass of such planet’s so that they can determine whether
they are rocky like Earth. This knowledge would add more insight to scientists on
whether or not they can sustain life. Space exploration of these Earth-sized habitable-
zoned planets would shed more light on this too. Therefore, having this knowledge
would help future researchers on whether these Earth-sized habitable-zoned planets
are ready for space colonization.
Brownell, S., Price, J. & Steinman, L. (2013). Science Communication to the General
Public: Why We Need to Teach Undergraduate and Graduate Students this Skill as
8Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
Part of Their Formal Scientific Training. Retrieved from: https://
NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (2020, April 16). Earth-size, habitable-zone planet
found hidden in early NASA Kepler data: While the star it orbits is much smaller than
our Sun, it gets about 75 percent of the sunlight Earth does. ScienceDaily. Retrieved
May 31, 2020, from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200416105650.htm
Sachdeva, G. (2018). Commercial Mining of Celestial Resources: Case Study of U.S.
Space Laws. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/
Siegfried, W. H. (2003). Space technology and applications int.forum-staif 2003:
Conf.on Thermophysics in Microgravity; Commercial/Civil Next Generation Space
Transportation; Human Space Exploration. AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 654,
pp. 1270-1278 (2003). Retrieved from: https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AIPC..
Sullivan, W. (2008). What are the guiding principles of ‘environmental sustainability’?
Retrieved from: https://news.illinois.edu/view/6367/198803
Tearfund, (2009). Environmental sustainabilityResponding to changes in the
environment and climate. https://learn.tearfund.org/~/media/files/tilz/publications/
The American Astronomical Society, (2020). A Habitable-zone Earth-sized Planet
Rescued from False Positive Status. Retrieved from: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/
9Running head:SPACE COLONIZATION
University at Albany, (n.d.). Primary and Secondary Sources for Science. Retrieved
Vessuri, H. (2016). Science for Sustainable Development (Agenda 2030). Retrieved
Woodley, M. (2020). Three Types of Resources. Retrieved from: https://