Geography

wd_ African Nations Most Vulnerable to Climate Change.eml

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From: Jeanette Schmitthausler <jschmitthausler@bucs.fsw.edu> Date: October 24, 2017 at 1:03:52 AM EDT To: jeteba@icloud.com Subject: Fwd: African Nations Most Vulnerable to Climate Change

———- Forwarded message ———- From: jschmitthausler@bucs.fsw.edu <noreply@cengage.com> Date: Tue, Oct 3, 2017 at 3:53 PM Subject: African Nations Most Vulnerable to Climate Change To: jschmitthausler@bucs.fsw.edu

African Nations Most Vulnerable to Climate Change

Tribune Content Agency Graphics, 2008 From Opposing Viewpoints in Context  A world map shows the countries least and most vAfrican Nations Most Vulnerable to Climate Changeulnerable to climate change, with the most vulnerable nations found on the continent of Africa. © MCT 2008 This image may be used for personal, non-commercial purposes only.

Source Citation

“African Nations Most Vulnerable to Climate Change.” Tribune Content Agency Graphics, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CT3294260455/OVIC?u=lincclin_ecc&xid=ca78312e. Accessed 3 Oct. 2017. Gale Document Number: GALE|CT3294260455 — Jeanette Schmitthausler

Fwd_ Climate change controversies.eml

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From: Jeanette Schmitthausler <jschmitthausler@bucs.fsw.edu> Date: October 24, 2017 at 1:01:55 AM EDT To: jeteba@icloud.com Subject: Fwd: Climate change controversies

———- Forwarded message ———- From: jschmitthausler@bucs.fsw.edu <noreply@cengage.com> Date: Tue, Oct 3, 2017 at 3:44 PM Subject: Climate change controversies To: jschmitthausler@bucs.fsw.edu

Climate change controversies

Environmental Encyclopedia, 2011 Updated: June 14, 2017 From Opposing Viewpoints in Context

According to the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a report compiled by 259 leading scientists and released in parts from September 2013 to November 2014, “Human activities have have contributed to increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, rising sea level, higher ocean and atmospheric temperatures and reductions in ice and snow.” Accordingly, “it is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.”

The IPCC was formed in 1988 as a joint effort of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to study and report on potential global climate change. The IPCC working group does not conduct original research and does not gather the data that form the basis of its reports. Instead, the group studies scientific data published in peer reviewed scientific journals (publications that allow leading scientists in various areas of science to scrutinize the work of their colleagues) and other technical sources in order to attempt to formulate an objective consensus on the science related to climate change and the impact of human activity on climate change. The IPCC reports describe progress in understanding both the natural and human impacts on climate change, including data related to observed climate change, the methods involved in the scientific study of climate processes, and estimates of projected future climate change.

IPCC reports fueled debate, mainly centered in the United States, on how to respond to the report’s ominous predictions regarding climate change. Older IPCC reports stated that satellite measurements of global warming did not agree with surface measurements. The 2007 report, however, asserted that this discrepancy has been reconciled and that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal.”

The 2013 IPCC report provides evidence that each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850. The report concludes that “global surface temperatures are more likely than not to exceed 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) compared to pre-industrial levels by 2100,” and “most aspects of climate change will persist for many centuries even if emissions of carbon dioxide CO2 are stopped.”

Sea ice and glaciers

In 2007 the IPCC reported that losses from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have “very likely contributed to sea level rise.” The 2013 IPCC report concludes that “oceans will continue to warm, and Arctic sea ice cover and northern hemisphere spring snow cover are very likely to continue to shrink during the 21st century. Ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica have been losing mass, Arctic sea ice and northern hemisphere spring snow cover have been shrinking, and glaciers have been retreating almost worldwide over the last twenty years.”

According to multiple studies by NASA an other agenices, Antarctica’s Larsen B ice shelf is melting faster than previously measured. Scientists expect the entire disintegration of the Larsen B ice shelf to occur around 2020. Just as melting ice cubes in a glass actually lower water levels (the air-filled and lattice-locked ice displaces more volume than liquid water), ice shelf melting does not contribute directly to sea level rise. However, breakup of floating ice shelves can accelerate onshore glacial feeder flows and increase ice-sheet melting that does contribute to sea-level rise.

Sea level rise

With regard to sea level rise, the AR5 asserts that between 1901 and 2010 (the last year for which there is coordinated global data), “global mean sea level rose by between 6.7 and 8.3 inches (0.17 and 0.21 meters).” Based on current prediction models, “for the rest of the century, sea level rise is very likely to exceed that observed between 1971 and 2010.”

Scientific and political controversy

Despite the high scientific confidence in the conclusions drawn in IPCC reports, errors in data and methodology were ultimately discovered, further fueling scientific and political controversy regarding global warming and climate change. Scientific controversy exists because Earth’s climate system is complex, which leads to uncertainties about how it has behaved in the distant past, how it works today, and how it will respond in the future. Public controversy and political partisanism often thrives on the existence of scientific uncertainty. Also, even persons or nations who accept the scientific consensus and data showing that climate change is at least partially the result of human activity (anthropogenic climate change) can, and do, disagree about who should make what changes in order to minimize climate change’:s future impact. There are also sharp debates about who should pay for needed changes and remediation of damage.

There are, then, three basic kinds of climate-change controversy: (1) scientific disagreement over the details of climate changes past, present, and future; (2) denial of the existence or human origin of present-day climate change; and (3) disagreement over what actions to take against climate change, when to take them, how much they will cost, and how to pay for them.

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